Psychopaths lie. They lie a lot.
Dr. Galperin states that psychopaths will “make up a story about who they are, […] a completely false identity that they create to hook people.” And they don’t just do it for kicks, they do it to further themselves in some way. Dr. Galperin explains that psychopaths will “put on a show to develop false relationships [in order to] accomplish their higher purpose.”
Online dating may be a quick way to fill up your roster with Saturday night possibilities, but it’s important you stay wary. You never know what online flame may just turn out to be a little more Norman Bates-y than you bargained for.
Think you may be caught in a psychopath’s web of lies? Listen for any signs of discrepancy. If you notice that certain things they say don’t match up with what they’ve told you before, take it as a serious warning. And run for the hills.
The life histories of psychopaths are often characterized by a chaotic family life, lack of parental attention and guidance, parental substance abuse and antisocial behavior, poor relationships, divorce, and adverse socioeconomic circumstances.4,5 These individuals may feel that they are prisoners of their own etiological determination and believe that they had, in comparison with normal people, fewer opportunities or advantages in life.
Despite their outward arrogance, psychopaths feel inferior to others and know they are stigmatized by their own behavior. Some psychopaths are superficially adapted to their environment and are even popular, but they feel they must carefully hide their true nature because it will not be acceptable to others. This leaves psychopaths with a difficult choice: adapt and participate in an empty, unreal life, or do not adapt and live a lonely life isolated from the social community. They see the love and friendship others share and feel dejected knowing they will never be part of it.
Psychopaths are known for needing excessive stimulation, but most foolhardy adventures only end in disillusionment because of conflicts with others and unrealistic expectations. Furthermore, many psychopaths are disheartened by their inability to control their sensation-seeking and are repeatedly confronted with their weaknesses. Although they may attempt to change, low fear response and associated inability to learn from experiences lead to repeated negative, frustrating, and depressing confrontations, including trouble with the justice system.
It’s one thing to define a new personality structure, but measuring it is another thing altogether. To this end, a team of psychologists led by Delroy Paulhus of the University of British Columbia in Canada developed a 28-item scale to measure the personality traits of narcissism, Machiavellianism, psychopathy, and sadism. Here is what they came up with. (Note that all statements are responded to on a 5-point, strongly disagree to strongly agree, scale.)
People with any of the nine dark personality traits may belong to the Dark Tetrad. Colloquially, these people are known as sadists, narcissists, psychopaths, and sociopaths. But having some of the traits doesn’t necessarily mean you have an antisocial personality disorder.
All three dark triad traits are conceptually distinct although empirical evidence shows them to be overlapping. They are associated with a callous-manipulative interpersonal style.
- Narcissism is characterized by grandiosity, pride, egotism, and a lack of empathy.
- Machiavellianism is characterized by manipulation and exploitation of others, an absence of morality, unemotional callousness, and a higher level of self interest.
- Psychopathy is characterized by continuous antisocial behavior, impulsivity, selfishness, callous and unemotional traits (CU), and remorselessness.
A factor analysis found that among the big five personality traits, low agreeableness is the strongest correlate of the dark triad, while neuroticism and a lack of conscientiousness were associated with some of the dark triad members. Agreeableness and the dark triad show correlated change over development.
Studies have suggested that on average, those who exhibit the dark triad of personality traits have an accelerated mating strategy, reporting more sex partners, more favorable attitudes towards casual sex, lowered standards in their short-term mates, a tendency to steal or poach mates from others, more risk-taking in the form of substance abuse, a tendency to prefer immediate but smaller amounts of money over delayed but larger amounts of money, limited self-control and greater incidence of ADHD symptoms and a pragmatic and game-playing romance style. These traits have been identified as part of a fast life strategy that appears to be enacted by an exploitative, opportunistic, and protean approach to life in general and at work.
The evidence is mixed regarding the exact link between the dark triad and reproductive success. For example, there is a lack of empirical evidence for reproductive success in the case of psychopathy. Additionally, these traits are not universally short-term-oriented nor are they all impulsive. Furthermore, much of the research reported pertaining to the dark triad cited in the above paragraph is based on statistical procedures that assume the dark triad are a single construct, in spite of genetic and meta-analytic evidence to the contrary.
This review proposes the term “sadistic abuse” to describe severe abuse, often occurring in childhood, that may include torture, confinement, extreme threat and domination, over- lapping physical and sexual abuse, and multiple victim or multiple perpetrator patterns of abuse.
Sadistic abuse – |||| EMPTY MEMORIES |||
This meta-analysis examined the association between psychopathic personality traits as assessed by the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R; Hare, 1991), and sadism. The PCL-R yields a total score as well as two factor scores. Factor 1encompasses the interpersonal/affective components of psychopathy such as glibness, and callousness. Factor 2 captures the antisocial behavior aspects of psychopathy including impulsivity, and poor planning abilities. The meta-analysis included 19 independent adult, male forensic samples from 16 articles that included a total of 5161 participants. The average r across all studies for PCL-R total score and sadism was 0.24 (p < .001). Both PCL-R Factor 1 (r = 0.25, p < .01) and PCL-R Factor 2 (r = 0.26, p < .01), yielded similar correlations with sadism. Sadism measurement method and type of sadism assessed did not significantly moderate the association between psychopathy and sadism. However, there was low power in the moderator analyses. These results support previous research that found both the interpersonal/affective component of psychopathy and the antisocial behavior component of psychopathy are associated with sadism.
Unequivocally, various forms of bullying (e.g., physical, verbal,relational, damage to property,etc.) pose a serious problem for students and society in general (Gladden, Vivolo-Kantor, Hamburger,& Lumpkin, 2014; Smith & Brain, 2000). Thankfully, bullying is becoming less accepted as a ‘‘normal part of childhood’’ and instead, is now being addressed by schools as a considerable threat(Limber & Small, 2003). Because of the harmful consequences of bullying, personality researchers frequently examine and explain the bullying problem, in part, as a manifestation of individual differences (e.g., Mynard & Joseph, 1997; Sutton & Keogh, 2000; Tani,Greenman, Schneider, & Fregoso, 2003). One form of bullying,cyber bullying, is particularly problematic because as schools, parents, and communities attempt to combat it, perpetrators ﬁnd new and creative ways to victimize others through the use of evolving technologies (e.g., new cell phone apps, social networking websites, messaging programs). As Menesini and Spiel (2012)pointed out, ‘‘although some consistent ﬁndings have been reached so far, there is still a lack of knowledge about developmental processes of cyber bullying and on possible predictors and correlates,such as personality’’ (p. 164). Therefore, the current study examined cyber bullying behavior as an expression of undesirable personality traits (i.e., the Dark Triad)
The Dark Triad(Paulhus & Williams2002) is a cluster of three related yet distinct personality traits: sub-clinical psychopathy, narcissism and Machiavellianism. Psychopathyis deﬁned by behaviors such as impulsivity, callous indifference, and low empathy (Hare, 1985). Narcissism is characterized by feelings of grandiosity, vanity and a sense of entitlement (Raskin & Hall 1979). Lastly, Machiavellianism is epitomized by emotional coldness and manipulativeness (Christie & Geis,1970). Given the socially malevolent tendencies that characterize the Dark Triad traits,there is,understandably,an interest in their behavioral implications. Speciﬁcally, it seems salient to determine whether these dark variables are associated with equally dark actions, and particularly whether they are predictive of enacted misconduct and a tendency to engage in high-stakes deception.