PSYCHOLOGICAL TREATMENTS APA

The purpose of this part of the website is to provide information about effective treatments for psychological diagnoses. The website is meant for a wide audience, including the general public, practitioners, researchers, and students. Basic descriptions are provided for each psychological diagnosis and treatment. In addition, for each treatment, the website lists key references, clinical resources, and training opportunities.

The American Psychological Association has identified “best research evidence” as a major component of evidence-based practice (APA Presidential Task Force on Evidence-Based Practice, 2006). The pages in the blue pull down bar above describe research evidence for psychological treatments, which will necessarily be combined with clinician expertise and patient values and characteristics in determining optimum approaches to treatment.

Below is an alphabetized list of psychological treatments. Please note that the absence of a treatment for a particular diagnosis does not necessarily suggest the treatment does not have sufficient evidence. Rather, it may indicate that the treatment has not been thoroughly evaluated by our team according to empirically-supported treatment criteria. Click on a treatment to view a description, research support, clinical resources, and training opportunities. Or, if you prefer, you may search treatments by diagnosis. You may also review treatments that may be appropriate for certain case presentations in the case studies section.

Please note, the following treatments have been evaluated to determine the strength of their evidence base; results are listed within each page. The treatments listed below have evidence ratings ranging from “strong” to “insufficient evidence”; click within each treatment to determine its rating.

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Coaching, Counselling and Therapy

Can you get PTSD from a narcissistic parent?

PTSD as a consequence of living with a Narcissistic Parent. When you have lived through a childhood that involved these kind of unpredictable and traumatic outbursts, particularly ifthere was no one available to help and share the burden with, then it is likely it will havecaused significant problems for you.

https://psychcentral.com/blog/psychotherapy-matters/2018/06/narcissistic-parents-and-ptsd#1

Trauma Bond with Abusive Parent

The term ‘trauma bond‘ is also known as Stockholm Syndrome. It describes a deep bond which forms between a victim and their abuser. Victims of abuse often develop a strong sense of loyalty towards their abuser, despite the fact that the bond is damaging to them.

The symptoms of trauma bonding can manifest:

  • Negative feelings for potential rescuers
  • Support of abusers reasons and behaviours
  • Inability to engage in behaviours that will assist release/detachment from abusers

https://paceuk.info/child-sexual-exploitation/what-is-trauma-bonding/

Power dynamics in families affected by parental alienation

Statement of Relevance: The balance of power in relationships has been an important differentiator of different forms of family violence. This project is the first to apply interdependence theory as a qualitative framework to determine that families affected by parental alienation have asymmetries in power between parents. Results indicate that all “high-conflict” divorced families are not equal, and that a better understanding of abusive power dynamics can be used to identify more effective methods of intervention.

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/pere.12392

Does PA Cause PTSD

Are Hallucinations Related to Betrayal Trauma Exposure?

Betrayal trauma theory proposes that one response to betrayal may be to keep knowledge of the trauma out of conscious awareness. Although this betrayal blindness may be beneficial for survival while the abuse is ongoing because it helps maintain crucial relationships, this distortion of reality can lead to subsequent psychological and behavioral problems. The current article presents three exploratory studies that examine the associations among exposure to betrayal trauma, dissociation, and hallucinations. The first study (N ϭ 397) examined the associations between exposure to medium and high betrayal trauma and dissociation. The second study (N ϭ 199) examined the associations between exposure to low, medium, and high betrayal trauma and hallucinations. The third study (N ϭ 566) examined the associations between medium and high betrayal child and adolescent/adult sexual abuse and hallucinations. Our results suggest that exposure to betrayal trauma increases the likelihood of both dissociation and hallucinations. These findings provide further evidence that the toxic nature of betrayal in traumas has lasting effects on both cognitive and perceptual processes— dissociation and hallucinations— having implications for therapeutic treatment for individuals who have experienced betrayal traumas and related outcomes.

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/280776251_Are_Hallucinations_Related_to_Betrayal_Trauma_Exposure_A_Three-Study_Exploration

Traumatic amnesia as an adaptive response to childhood abuse.

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https://dynamic.uoregon.edu/jjf/articles/freyd94.pdf

Betrayal Trauma

According to the betrayal trauma theory first proposed by Jennifer Freyd of the University of Oregon, the extent of trauma associated with abuse is often linked to the level of perceived betrayal involved. Due to a fear of confrontation with the abuser and the potential loss of the abuser’s support, abuse victims are far more likely to shut out conscious recall of the abuse, even years later. Various other symptoms associated with betrayal trauma include alexithymia (inability to recognize emotions), depressionanxiety, panic attacks, suicidal behavior, anger, and physical health complaints. 

Another common problem linked to the suppression of memories surrounding betrayal trauma is dissociation. Defined by Freyd and her colleagues as, ““the lack of integration of thoughts, feelings, and experiences into the stream of consciousness,” dissociation can range from mild detachment from immediate reality (such as daydreaming) to more severe symptoms including loss of memory, fragmenting of identity, and complex posttraumatic disorder (C-PTSD).

https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/blog/media-spotlight/201406/living-betrayal

Betrayal

“When we think about betrayal in terms of the marble jar metaphor, most of us think of someone we trust doing something so terrible that it forces us to grab the jar and dump out every single marble. What’s the worst betrayal of trust? He sleeps with my best friends. She lies about where the money went. He/she chooses someone over me. Someone uses my vulnerability against me (an act of emotional treason that causes most of us to slam the entire jar to the ground rather than just dumping out the marbles). All terrible betrayals, definitely, but there is a particular sort of betrayal that is more insidious and equally corrosive to trust.

“In fact, this betrayal usually happens long before the other ones. I’m talking about the betrayal of disengagement. Of not caring. Of letting the connection go. Of not being willing to devote time and effort to the relationship. The word betrayal evokes experiences of cheating, lying, breaking a confidence, failing to defend us to someone else who’s gossiping about us, and not choosing us over other people. These behaviors are certainly betrayals, but they’re not the only form of betrayal. If I had to choose the form of betrayal that emerged most frequently from my research and that was the most dangerous in terms of corroding the trust connection, I would would say disengagement.

“When the people we love or with whom we have a deep connection stop caring, stop paying attention, stop investing and fighting for the relationship, trust begins to slip away and hurt starts seeping in. Disengagement triggers shame and our greatest fears – the fears of being abandoned, unworthy, and unlovable. What can make this covert betrayal so much more dangerous than something like a lie or an affair is that we can’t point to the source of our pain — there’s no event, no obvious evidence of brokenness. It can feel crazy-making.”

https://brenebrown.com