Similarities in Environmental Etiological Factors
Similarities in Current Functioning
Psychological abuse of a child is often divided into nine categories:
1. Rejection: to reject a child, to push him away, to make him feel that he is useless or worthless, to undermine the value of his ideas or feelings, to refuse to help him.
2. Scorn: to demean the child, to ridicule him, to humiliate him, to cause him to be ashamed, to criticize the child, to insult him.
3. Terrorism: to threaten a child or someone who is dear to him with physical violence, abandonment or death, to threaten to destroy the child’s possessions, to place him in chaotic or dangerous situations, to define strict and unreasonable expectations and to threaten him with punishment if he does not comply.
4. Isolation: to physically or socially isolate a child, to limit his opportunities to socialize with others.
5. Corruption or exploitation: to tolerate or encourage inappropriate or deviant behavior, to expose the child to antisocial role-models, to consider the child as a servant, to encourage him or coerce him to participate in sexual activities.
6. The absence of emotional response: to show oneself as inattentive or indifferent towards the child, to ignore his emotional needs, to avoid visual contact, kisses or verbal communication with him, to never congratulate him.
Neglect: to ignore the health or educational needs of the child, to refuse or to neglect to apply the required treatment. (See: What is Child Neglect?) Continue reading “Types of Child Psychological Abuse”
Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy ® publishes empirical research on the psychological effects of trauma. The journal is intended to be a forum for an interdisciplinary discussion on trauma, blending science, theory, practice, and policy.
The journal publishes empirical research on a wide range of trauma-related topics, including
- Psychological treatments and effects
- Promotion of education about effects of and treatment for trauma
- Assessment and diagnosis of trauma
- Pathophysiology of trauma reactions
- Health services (delivery of services to trauma populations)
- Epidemiological studies and risk factor studies
- Neuroimaging studies
- Trauma and cultural competence
The journal publishes articles that use experimental and correlational methods and qualitative analyses, if applicable.
All research reports should reflect methodologically rigorous designs that aim to significantly enhance the field’s understanding of trauma. Such reports should be based on good theoretical foundations and integrate theory and data. Manuscripts should be of sufficient length to ensure theoretical and methodological competence. Continue reading “Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy “
Trolls will lie, exaggerate, and offend to get a response.
Trolls truly enjoy making you feel bad. To quote the authors once more (because this is a truly quotable article): “Both trolls and sadists feel sadistic glee at the distress of others. Sadists just want to have fun. . . and the Internet is their playground!”
The next time you encounter a troll online, remember:
- These trolls are some truly difficult people.
- It is your suffering that brings them pleasure, so the best thing you can do is ignore them.
Say hello to the Keyboard Warrior, often referred to as a troll or hater. Your mind wonders why they would type such poison, especially when they don’t know you and have never met you. Your evening is ruined. You toss and turn in bed, then awaken to a new day, put the kettle on and suddenly your mind tracks back to yesterday’s post’s reaction. Your mood darkens and you have a miserable start to the day.
Such ‘trolling’ has become commonplace in recent years. Social media has become a safe haven for haters. Being anonymous, or hiding safely behind the screen in their bedrooms offers protection for people to say whatever they want, be it constructive or abusive.
So what constitutes a troll? Who are they, how are they wired, what is their psychology, what drives their behaviour?
They do not all fit into one particular box. However, they all demonstrate similar tactics. Often, they can be people who have been abused or are suffering abuse themselves. Feeling helpless, they project their inner misery onto others in the form of written abuse. They may suffer from an identity issue, an insecurity about their own identity.
Their way of coping with this crisis or inner turmoil is to belittle others, which gives them a self-satisfied feeling of justification, that their lives mean something more than their own poor image of themselves. They feel they have no control over their own lives and seek to control others via their belittling behaviour. These types feel no remorse and rarely stop. This may be a pattern for their entire lives.
In a study conducted by Canadian researchers (1) involving 1215 people, they came to the conclusion that trolling can be clearly linked with the ‘Dark Tetrad’ (2) of personality traits, which are narcissism, Machiavellianism, psychopathy and sadism. In fact, the results were so significant, they stated: “… the associations between sadism and GAIT (Global Assessment of Internet Trolling) scores were so strong that it might be said that online trolls are prototypical everyday sadists.”
With such traits, trolls will likely exhibit such tactics away from their safe chair behind the screen. They may bully their own families and friends, exhibit aggressive or passive aggressive behaviour and be unpleasant to people in general. They may be the type to drive aggressively. They are unlikely to feel they have personality flaws and will look to blame negative feedback from others on those who object to their behaviour. Research indicates that bullies actually have excellent self-esteem, which ties in with the Dark Tetrad. “Bullies usually have a sense of entitlement and superiority over others, and lack compassion, impulse control and social skills”. (3)
Cruelty – lacking in empathy or putting yourself in others’ shoes
One of the most toxic and damaging behaviors – cruelty – stems from a total lack of empathy, concern or compassion for others. We see it every day online and in the media – people being devastatingly cruel and destructive to others just because they can. They tear people down online but in a cowardly way, using their anonymity as a weapon. Cruelty, backstabbing, and ripping someone to shreds is toxic, and it hurts you as well as your target.
I had a powerful learning experience about this a few years ago. I came into the house one day in a nasty mood, and shared a mean, sniping comment to my husband about the way a neighbor was parenting her child through one of his problem phases. In less than 24 hours, that very same issue the parent was dealing with came home to roost in my house, with my child. It was as if the Universe sent me the message that “Ah, if you want to be cruel and demeaning about someone, we’ll give you the same experience you’ve judged so negatively, so you can learn some compassion.” And I did.
If you find yourself backstabbing and tearing someone else down, stop in your tracks. Dig deep and find compassion in your heart, and realize that we’re all the same.
YoungMinds Crisis Messenger
- Provides free, 24/7 crisis support across the UK if you are experiencing a mental health crisis
- If you need urgent help text YM to 85258
- All texts are answered by trained volunteers, with support from experienced clinical supervisors
- Texts are free from EE, O2, Vodafone, 3, Virgin Mobile, BT Mobile, GiffGaff, Tesco Mobile and Telecom Plus.
Mental health information, support and rights on the website.
Two helplines are available, Infoline and Legal Advice, Monday to Friday, 09:00-18:00
Infoline can provide information on: types of mental health problem, where to get help, drug &
alternative treatments and advocacy.
- Infoline: 0300 123 3393 (Monday to Friday, 09:00-18:00)
- Text: 86463 (09:00-18:00)
- Email: email@example.com
- Legal Advice line provides legal information and general advice on mental health related law covering:mental health, mental capacity, community care, human rights and discrimination/equality related to mental health issues. Call 0300 466 6463 (Monday to Friday, 09:00-18:00)
- Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
- Provides care and emotional support for people affected by mental illness, their families and carers
- SANEline: 0300 304 7000 (16:30-22:30 every day)
- Peer support Forum
Provides mental health advice, information and support plus local service finder.
- Advice line: 0300 5000 927 (Monday to Friday, 10:00-14:00)
- A range of downloadable factsheets
- Support for anyone whose life is affected by someone else’s drinking.
- Helpline: 020 7403 0888
- Local meetings search feature on their website
- Al-anon also offers Alateen – a separate support service for 12-17 year olds, who have a problem drinker in their lives
- Infoline: 020 7593 2070
Nacoa (National Association for Children of Alcoholics)
- Information, advice and support for everyone affected by a parent’s drinking.
- Helpline: 0800 358 3456 (Fri, Sat, Mon -12:00-19:00; Tue, Wed, Thu –12:00-21:00)
- Email: email@example.com
- Scotland’s leading mental health charity providing information and support services.
- Provides free, safe, anonymous online support for young people – counselling, messaging, personal stories. Only available in certain parts of England and Wales.
- Children can confidentially call, email, or chat online about any problem big or small.
- Freephone helpline: 0800 1111 (open 24hrs)
- Sign up for a childline account to message a counsellor anytime without email.
The 2 main symptoms of psychosis are:
- hallucinations – where a person hears, sees and, in some cases, feels, smells or tastes things that do not exist outside their mind but can feel very real to the person affected by them; a common hallucination is hearing voices
- delusions – where a person has strong beliefs that are not shared by others; a common delusion is someone believing there’s a conspiracy to harm them
The combination of hallucinations and delusional thinking can cause severe distress and a change in behaviour.
Experiencing the symptoms of psychosis is often referred to as having a psychotic episode. Continue reading “Symptoms of psychosis”