The purpose of this part of the website is to provide information about effective treatments for psychological diagnoses. The website is meant for a wide audience, including the general public, practitioners, researchers, and students. Basic descriptions are provided for each psychological diagnosis and treatment. In addition, for each treatment, the website lists key references, clinical resources, and training opportunities.

The American Psychological Association has identified “best research evidence” as a major component of evidence-based practice (APA Presidential Task Force on Evidence-Based Practice, 2006). The pages in the blue pull down bar above describe research evidence for psychological treatments, which will necessarily be combined with clinician expertise and patient values and characteristics in determining optimum approaches to treatment.

Below is an alphabetized list of psychological treatments. Please note that the absence of a treatment for a particular diagnosis does not necessarily suggest the treatment does not have sufficient evidence. Rather, it may indicate that the treatment has not been thoroughly evaluated by our team according to empirically-supported treatment criteria. Click on a treatment to view a description, research support, clinical resources, and training opportunities. Or, if you prefer, you may search treatments by diagnosis. You may also review treatments that may be appropriate for certain case presentations in the case studies section.

Please note, the following treatments have been evaluated to determine the strength of their evidence base; results are listed within each page. The treatments listed below have evidence ratings ranging from “strong” to “insufficient evidence”; click within each treatment to determine its rating.


Evidence Based Therapies

Is (brainspotting/somatic experiencing therapy/hypnosis/neuro-linguistic programming/equine therapy/art therapy/thought field therapy/rapid resolution therapy) an evidence-based treatment for PTSD? No. These are not evidence-based. You can certainly try them! Some things may work for you, individually, that have not yet been studied sufficiently in scientific research. Generally, it probably makes sense to at least begin with one of the therapies with the most scientific support (PE, CPT, or EMDR) before investing your time, money, and energy into other forms of therapy.

If you have PTSD, I encourage you to seek out a professional who is committed to evidence-based treatment, and is well-trained in PE, CPT, or EMDR. If you haven’t had these treatments yet, know that you shouldn’t give up hope.

Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)

BDNF is a critical mediator of vulnerability to stress, memory of fear/trauma, and stress-related disorders such as post-traumatic stress disorder.[92]

Variants close to the BDNF gene were found to be associated with obesity in two very large genome-wide association studies of body mass index (BMI).[93][94]

High levels of BDNF and Substance P have been associated with increased itching in eczema.[95]

BDNF is a regulator of drug addiction and psychological dependence. Animals chronically exposed to drugs of abuse show increased levels of BDNF in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) of the brain, and when BDNF is injected directly into the VTA of rats, the animals act as if they are addicted to and psychologically dependent upon opiates.[77]

BDNF is a short-term promoter,[96] but a long-term inhibitor of pain sensitivity, as a result of its effect as inducer of neuronal differentiation.[97] The polymorphism Thr2Ile may be linked to congenital central hypoventilation syndrome.[98][99] BDNF and IL-6 might be involved in the pathogenesis of post-chemotherapy cognitive impairment (PCCI, also known as chemo brain) and fatigue.[100]

Coaching, Counselling and Therapy

Helping Children with Emotional Regulation

The aim of the present study was to examine the moderating role of parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous system functioning on the relationship between child temperament and emotion regulation. Sixty-two 4.5-year olds (31 females) were rated by their parents on temperamental surgency. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) and pre-ejection period (PEP) were measured at baseline and in reaction to an interaction with an unfamiliar person and a cognitive test. The preschoolers’ ability to self-regulate emotion was assessed in response to a disappointment. Results revealed little or no PEP reactivity to the unfamiliar person to be related to poorer emotion regulation for children high in surgency, indicating that the lack of sympathetic activation may be a risk factor for behavioral maladjustment. Reciprocal sympathetic activation, or increases in sympathetic activity accompanied by decreases in parasympathetic activity, was associated with better regulation of emotion for all levels of temperamental surgency supporting previous work that reciprocal activation is an adaptive form of autonomic control.


Inner Child Therapy

Finishing School!

Had a good laugh this morning when looking for some documents and came across these two!

Go to finishing school my mother said “after you will meet a nice young man, someone with the same background and family values”

Ha Ha, how wrong she could be!

Instead I meet a money grabbing, narcissistic, parasitic mind disordered individual who continues with his revenge for divorcing him to this day.

It just goes to show, that no amount of schooling and deportment can prepare you for the deceitfulness and love bombing when the Narcissist targets YOU.

Completely naive and unprepared I entered into a world of deception and manipulation, which has been carried down through the generations and continues.

Nothing prepares you for Parental Alienation, the secret is in finding your way back.

I am a survivor 30 years on, and my life is now completely different. Full of confidence, financially independent, and living in France.

I have used my time wisely and have become a fully qualified Therapist and Counsellor helping others to survive the minefield of Parental Alienation.

I am here to help you and guide you through it,

Linda – Always by your side

Self Care and Recovery


The Body Perception Questionnaire (BPQ) is a self-report measure of body awareness and autonomic reactivity developed by Dr. Porges and colleagues. Its items are based on the organization of the autonomic nervous system (ANS), a set of neural pathways connecting the brain and body. These pathways send information from the body about the status of organs and tissues (i.e., afferent projections). Some of these incoming signals form a basis for the subjective awareness of the body. The ANS also carries signals that control the functions of these organs and tissues (i.e., efferent projections). These signals can alter the functions of the body, depending on internal and external needs. The BPQ has been translated into a number of languages. The scales are available below.

For information regarding psychometric properties of the Body Perception Questionnaire, please contact Dr Jacek Kolacz at: