Posted in Alienated children, Child abuse, Child Maltreatment, Child Protection, Children's Rights, Childrens Act 1989

Jean Piaget’s Theory and Stages of Cognitive Development

Piaget (1936) was the first psychologist to make a systematic study of cognitive development. His contributions include a stage theory of child cognitive development, detailed observational studies of cognition in children, and a series of simple but ingenious tests to reveal different cognitive abilities.

What Piaget wanted to do was not to measure how well children could count, spell or solve problems as a way of grading their I.Q. What he was more interested in was the way in which fundamental concepts like the very idea of number, time, quantity, causalityjustice and so on emerged.

Before Piaget’s work, the common assumption in psychology was that children are merely less competent thinkers than adults. Piaget showed that young children think in strikingly different ways compared to adults.

According to Piaget, children are born with a very basic mental structure (genetically inherited and evolved) on which all subsequent learning and knowledge are based.

Jean Piaget’s Theory and Stages of Cognitive Development https://www.simplypsychology.org/piaget.html

Posted in Alienated children, Alienation, Child Custody Rights, Child Protection, Children's Rights, Childrens Act 1989, Parental Alienation PA

Child Contact Page

If you are an alienated child (perhaps an adult now), please register your interest if you would like to re-establish your relationship with one of your parents. Simply email us on info@ukap.one

Likewise, if you are a parent looking for an alienated child, register your interest by mailing us and we will let you know if your child makes contact with us. Sometimes a child will prefer and need the contact to be indirect and to be handled sensitively.

Posted in Alienated children, Alienation, Child abuse, Child Maltreatment, Child Protection, Parental Alienation PA

Recognizing a Severely Alienated Child

  • They have a relentless hatred for/towards the targeted parent.
  • They parrot the Obsessed Alienator.
  • The child does not want to visit or spend any time with the targeted parent.
  • Many of the child’s beliefs are enmeshed with the alienator.
  • The beliefs are delusional and frequently irrational.
  • They are not intimidated by the court.
  • Frequently, their reasons are not based on personal experiences with the targeted parent but reflect what they are told by the Obsessed Alienator. They have difficulty making any distinction between the two.
  • The child has no ambivalence in his or her feelings; it’s all hatred with no ability to see the good.
  • They have no capacity to feel guilty about how they behave towards the targeted parent or forgive any past indiscretions.
  • They share the Obsessed Alienators cause. Together, they are in lockstep to denigrate the hated parent.
  • The children’s obsessional hatred extends to the targeted parent’s extended family without any guilt or remorse.
  • They can appear like normal healthy children until asked about the targeted parent that triggers their hatred.

 Information Provided by: Douglas Darnell, Ph.D.

Posted in Alienated children, Alienation, Child abuse, Child Maltreatment, Child Protection, Parental Alienation PA

Myths and facts about child abuse and neglect

Myth: It’s only abuse if it’s violent.Fact: Physical abuse is just one type of child abuse. Child neglect, sexual and emotional abuse can inflict just as much damage, and since they’re not always as obvious, others are less likely to intervene.
Myth: Only bad people abuse their children.Fact: Not all abusive parents or guardians intentionally harm their children. Many have been victims of abuse themselves and don’t know any other way to parent. Others may be struggling with mental health issues or substance abuse problems.
Myth: Abuse doesn’t happen in “good” families.Fact: Abuse and neglect doesn’t only happen in poor families or bad neighborhoods. These behaviors cross all racial, economic, and cultural lines. Sometimes, families who seem to have it all from the outside are hiding a different story behind closed doors.
Myth: Most child abusers are strangers.Fact: While abuse by strangers does happen, most abusers are family members or others close to the family.
Myth: Abused children always grow up to be abusers.Fact: It is true that abused children are more likely to repeat the cycle as adults, unconsciously repeating what they experienced as children. On the other hand, many adult survivors of child abuse have a strong motivation to protect their children against what they went through and become excellent parents.

Effects of child abuse and neglect

All types of abuse and neglect leave lasting scars. Some of these scars might be physical, but emotional scarring has long lasting effects throughout life, damaging a child’s sense of self, their future relationships, and ability to function at home, work and school. Effects include:

Lack of trust and relationship difficulties. If you can’t trust your parents, who can you trust? Without this base, it is very difficult to learn to trust people or know who is trustworthy. This can lead to difficulty maintaining relationships in adulthood. It can also lead to unhealthy relationships because the adult doesn’t know what a good relationship is.

Core feelings of being “worthless.” If you’ve been told over and over again as a child that you are stupid or no good, it is very difficult to overcome these core feelings. As they grow up, abused kids may neglect their education or settle for low-paying jobs because they don’t believe they are worth more. Sexual abuse survivors, with the stigma and shame surrounding the abuse, often struggle with a feeling of being damaged.

Trouble regulating emotions. Abused children cannot express emotions safely. As a result, the emotions get stuffed down, coming out in unexpected ways. Adult survivors of child abuse can struggle with unexplained anxiety, depression, or anger. They may turn to alcohol or drugs to numb out the painful feelings.

Recognizing the different types of child abuse

Abusive behavior comes in many forms, but the common denominator is the emotional effect on the child. Whether the abuse is a slap, a harsh comment, stony silence, or not knowing if there will be dinner on the table, the end result is a child that feels unsafe, uncared for, and alone.

Emotional abuse. Contrary to some people’s beliefs, words can hurt and emotional abuse can severely damage a child’s mental health or social development. Examples of emotional abuse include:

  • Constant belittling, shaming, and humiliating
  • Calling names and making negative comparisons to others
  • Telling a child they’re “no good,” “worthless,” “bad,” or “a mistake”
  • Frequent yelling, threatening, or bullying
  • Ignoring or rejecting a child as punishment, giving them the silent treatment
  • Limiting physical contact with a child—no hugs, kisses, or other signs of affection
  • Exposing a child to violence against others, whether it is against the other parent, a sibling, or even a pet

Child neglect—a very common type of child abuse—is a pattern of failing to provide for a child’s basic needs, which include adequate food, clothing, hygiene, or supervision. Child neglect is not always easy to spot. Sometimes, a parent might become physically or mentally unable to care for a child, such as in cases of serious illness or injury, or untreated depression or anxiety. Other times, alcohol or drug abuse may seriously impair judgment and the ability to keep a child safe.

Physical abuse involves physical harm or injury to the child. It may be the result of a deliberate attempt to hurt the child or excessive physical punishment. Many physically abusive parents insist that their actions are simply forms of discipline—ways to make children learn to behave. But there is a big difference between using physical punishment to discipline and physical abuse.

With physical abuse, the following elements are present:

  • Unpredictability. The child never knows what is going to set the parent off. There are no clear boundaries or rules. The child is constantly walking on eggshells, never sure what behavior will trigger a physical assault.
  • Lashing out in anger. Abusive parents act out of anger and the desire to assert control, not the motivation to lovingly teach the child. The angrier the parent, the more intense the abuse.
  • Using fear to control behavior. Abusive parents may believe that their children need to fear them in order to behave, so they use physical abuse to “keep their child in line.” However, what children are really learning is how to avoid being hit, not how to behave or grow as individuals.

Sexual abuse. Child sexual abuse is an especially complicated form of abuse because of its layers of guilt and shame. It’s important to recognize that sexual abuse doesn’t always involve body contact. Exposing a child to sexual situations or material is sexually abusive, whether or not touching is involved.

  • Sexually abused children are often tormented by shame and guilt. They may feel that they are responsible for the abuse or somehow brought it upon themselves. This can lead to self-loathing and sexual and relationship problems as they grow older.
  • The shame of sexual abuse makes it very difficult for children to come forward. They may worry that others won’t believe them, will be angry with them, or that it will split their family apart. Because of these difficulties, false accusations of sexual abuse are not common, so if a child confides in you, take them seriously.

Warning signs of child abuse and neglect

Warning signs of emotional abuse:

  • Excessively withdrawn, fearful, or anxious about doing something wrong
  • Shows extremes in behavior (extremely compliant, demanding, passive, aggressive)
  • Doesn’t seem to be attached to the parent or caregiver
  • Acts either inappropriately adult (taking care of other children) or inappropriately infantile (thumb-sucking, throwing tantrums)

Warning signs of physical abuse:

  • Frequent injuries or unexplained bruises, welts, or cuts
  • Is always watchful and “on alert,” as if waiting for something bad to happen
  • Injuries appear to have a pattern such as marks from a hand or belt
  • Shies away from touch, flinches at sudden movements, or seems afraid to go home
  • Wears inappropriate clothing to cover up injuries, such as long-sleeved shirts on hot days

Warning signs of child neglect:

  • Clothes are ill-fitting, filthy, or inappropriate for the weather
  • Hygiene is consistently bad (unbathed, matted and unwashed hair, noticeable body odor)
  • Untreated illnesses and physical injuries
  • Is frequently unsupervised or left alone or allowed to play in unsafe situations
  • Is frequently late or missing from school

Warning signs of sexual abuse in children:

  • Trouble walking or sitting
  • Displays knowledge of sexual acts inappropriate for their age, or even seductive behavior
  • Makes strong efforts to avoid a specific person, without an obvious reason
  • Doesn’t want to change clothes in front of others or participate in physical activities
  • An STD or pregnancy, especially under the age of 14
  • Runs away from home

Risk factors for child abuse and neglect

While abuse and neglect occurs in all types of families, children are at a much greater risk in certain situations.

Domestic violence. Even if the abused parent does their best to protect their children, domestic violence is still extremely damaging. Getting out is the best way to help your children.

Alcohol and drug abuse. Parents who are drunk or high may be unable to care for their children, make good parenting decisions, or control often-dangerous impulses. Substance abuse can also lead to physical abuse.

Untreated mental illness. Parents who are suffering from depression, an anxiety disorderbipolar disorder, or another mental illness may have trouble taking care of themselves, much less their children. A mentally ill or traumatized parent may be distant and withdrawn from their children, or quick to anger without understanding why. Treatment for the caregiver means better care for the children.

Lack of parenting skills. Some caregivers never learned the skills necessary for good parenting. Teen parents, for example, might have unrealistic expectations about how much care babies and small children need. Or parents who were themselves victims of child abuse may only know how to raise their children the way they were raised. Parenting classes, therapy, and caregiver support groups are great resources for learning better parenting skills.

Stress and lack of support. Parenting can be a very time-intensive, stressful job, especially if you’re raising children without support from family and friends, or you’re dealing with relationship problems or financial difficulties. Caring for a child with a disability, special needs, or difficult behaviors is also a challenge. It’s important to get the support you need, so you are emotionally and physically able to support your child.

Recognizing abusive behavior in yourself

Raising children is one of life’s greatest challenges and can trigger anger and frustration in the most even-tempered parent or guardian. If you grew up in a household where screaming and shouting or violence was the norm, you may not know any other way to raise your kids.

Recognizing that you have a problem is the biggest step to getting help. The following are warning signs that you may be crossing the line into abuse:

You can’t stop your anger. What starts as a swat on the backside may turn into multiple hits getting harder and harder. You may shake your child more and more and finally throw them down. You find yourself screaming louder and louder and can’t stop yourself.

You feel emotionally disconnected from your child. You may feel so overwhelmed that you don’t want anything to do with your child. You just want to be left alone and for your child to be quiet.

Meeting the daily needs of your child seems impossible. While everyone struggles with balancing dressing, feeding, and getting kids to school or other activities, if you continually can’t manage to do it, it’s a sign that something might be wrong.

Other people have expressed concern. It may be easy to bristle at other people expressing concern. However, consider carefully what they have to say. Are the words coming from someone you normally respect and trust?

Breaking the cycle of abuse

If you have a history of child abuse, having your own children can trigger strong memories and feelings that you may have repressed. You may be shocked and overwhelmed by your anger, and feel like you can’t control it. But you can learn new ways to manage your emotions and break your old patterns.

Remember, you are the most important person in your child’s world – and you don’t have to go it alone. Help and support are available:

Learn what is age appropriate and what is not. Having realistic expectations of what children can handle at certain ages will help you avoid frustration and anger at normal child behavior. For example, newborns are not going to sleep through the night without a peep, and toddlers are not going to be able to sit quietly for extended periods of time.

Develop new parenting skills. Start by learning appropriate discipline techniques and how to set clear boundaries for your children. Parenting classes, books, and seminars offer this information. You can also turn to other parents for tips and advice.

Take care of yourself. If you are not getting enough rest and support or you’re feeling overwhelmed, you are much more likely to succumb to anger. Sleep deprivation, common in parents of young children, adds to moodiness and irritability—exactly what you are trying to avoid.

Get professional help. Breaking the cycle of abuse can be very difficult if the patterns are strongly entrenched. If you can’t seem to stop yourself no matter how hard you try, it’s time to get help, whether in the form of therapy, parenting classes, or other interventions. Your children will thank you for it.

Learn to control your emotions. If you were abused or neglected as a child, you may have an especially difficult time getting in touch with your range of emotions. You may have had to deny or repress them as a child, and now they spill out without your control. HelpGuide’s free Emotional Intelligence Toolkit can help.

How to help an abused or neglected child

What should you do if you suspect that a child is being abused? Or if a child confides in you? It’s normal to feel a little overwhelmed and confused. Child abuse is a difficult subject that can be hard to accept and even harder to talk about—for both you and the child. When talking with an abused child, the best way to encourage them is to show calm reassurance and unconditional support. If you’re having trouble finding the words, let your actions speak for you.

Avoid denial and remain calm. A common reaction to news as unpleasant and shocking as child abuse is denial. However, if you display denial to a child, or show shock or disgust at what they are saying, the child may be afraid to continue and will shut down. As hard as it may be, remain as calm and reassuring as you can.

Don’t interrogate. Let the child explain to you in their own words what happened, but don’t interrogate the child or ask leading questions. This may confuse and fluster the child and make it harder for them to continue their story.

Reassure the child that they did nothing wrong. It takes a lot for a child to come forward about abuse. Reassure them that you take what they said seriously, and that it is not their fault.

Safety comes first. If you feel that your safety or the safety of the child would be threatened if you tried to intervene, leave it to the professionals. You may be able to provide more support later.

Reporting child abuse or neglect

If you suspect that a child is undergoing abuse, it’s critical to report it—and to continue reporting each separate incidence if it continues to recur. Each report you make is a snapshot of what’s going on in the family. The more information you can provide, the better the chance of the child getting the help they deserve. Of course, it’s normal to have some reservations or worries about reporting child abuse.

I don’t want to interfere in someone else’s family. Child abuse and neglect is NOT merely a family matter, and the consequences of staying silent can be devastating for the child.

What if I break up someone’s home? A child abuse report does not mean a child is automatically removed from the home—unless they’re clearly in danger. Parents may be first offered support, such as parenting classes or anger management counseling.

They will know it was me who called. Reporting is anonymous. In most places, you do not have to give your name when you report child abuse.

What I have to say won’t make a difference. If you have a gut feeling that something is wrong, it’s better to be safe than sorry. Even if you can’t see the whole picture, others may have noticed signs as well, and a pattern can help identify child abuse that might have otherwise been overlooked.

Continue reading “Myths and facts about child abuse and neglect”

Posted in Child abuse, Child Custody Rights, Child Maltreatment, Child Protection

Childhood Psychological Abuse as Harmful as Sexual or Physical Abuse

Researchers used the National Child Traumatic Stress Network Core Data Set to analyze data from 5,616 youths with lifetime histories of one or more of three types of abuse: psychological maltreatment (emotional abuse or emotional neglect), physical abuse and sexual abuse. The majority (62 percent) had a history of psychological maltreatment, and nearly a quarter (24 percent) of all the cases were exclusively psychological maltreatment, which the study defined as caregiver-inflicted bullying, terrorizing, coercive control, severe insults, debasement, threats, overwhelming demands, shunning and/or isolation.

Children who had been psychologically abused suffered from anxiety, depression, low self-esteem, symptoms of post-traumatic stress and suicidality at the same rate and, in some cases, at a greater rate than children who were physically or sexually abused. Among the three types of abuse, psychological maltreatment was most strongly associated with depression, general anxiety disorder, social anxiety disorder, attachment problems and substance abuse. Psychological maltreatment that occurred alongside physical or sexual abuse was associated with significantly more severe and far-ranging negative outcomes than when children were sexually and physically abused and not psychologically abused, the study found. Moreover, sexual and physical abuse had to occur at the same time to have the same effect as psychological abuse alone on behavioral issues at school, attachment problems and self-injurious behaviors, the research found.

“Child protective service case workers may have a harder time recognizing and substantiating emotional neglect and abuse because there are no physical wounds,” said Spinazzola. “Also, psychological abuse isn’t considered a serious social taboo like physical and sexual child abuse. We need public awareness initiatives to help people understand just how harmful psychological maltreatment is for children and adolescents.” Continue reading “Childhood Psychological Abuse as Harmful as Sexual or Physical Abuse”

Posted in Alienated children, Alienation, Child abuse, Child Maltreatment, Child Protection, Children's Rights, Parental Alienation PA

What it means to heal from childhood experiences

 

As I’ve written, Western culture sees healing—it literally means “to make whole”—as restoring something or someone to an undamaged state; when something of value is damaged, such as a painting or other artifact, our practice is always to repair it in such a way that it looks as though the damage never happened.

That tends to be the mindset we bring to our emotional healing from childhood which is, of course, impossible. For that reason, I think it’s far more productive to think of healing using the Japanese art of Kintsugi as the guiding metaphor. When a valuable or cherished ceramic object is broken, the Japanese repair the piece with lacquer mixed with precious metals—gold, silver, or copper—so that the breaks are not only visible but form a pattern of their own, testifying to the object’s history while transforming how it looks. The repaired object remains its old self while becoming an emblem of resilience and newly envisioned beauty. Continue reading “What it means to heal from childhood experiences”

Posted in Alienation, Child abuse, Child Maltreatment, Child Protection, Children's Rights

The psychology of an abusive parent.

Studies have shown that our childhood history plays a huge role in how we are as parents.

Parents who did not have their needs met as children may find it hard to meet the needs of their own children.

Research has also revealed that some parents who were mistreated as children may expose their child to abuse.

Environmental circumstances such as job loss, marital problems, or physical health concerns may contribute to mental health issues like depression or anxiety thus increasing family conflict or abuse in the home.

Many abusive parents are unconsciously repeating behaviors witnessed from their own family.

According to one German psychiatrist Alice Miller abusers have an “unconscious compulsion to repeat.”

“An intellectual understanding — that hitting or belittling a child is wrong, for example — may not be enough to prevent abuse, simply because the drive to repeat occurs on an unconscious level”, Miller says.

Other factors may play a role such as substance abuse problems or suffering from a personality disorder such as schizophrenia.

Despite these circumstances research has also shown that many children of abusers can overcome the odds and break the cycle in adulthood. Continue reading “The psychology of an abusive parent.”

Posted in Alienated children, Alienation, Child abuse, Child Maltreatment, Child Protection, Parental Alienation PA

Signs you have emotionally abusive parents

“Given the prevalence of childhood psychological abuse and the severity of harm to young victims, it should be at the forefront of mental health.”

Bruises and scars are one thing. But the permanent damage of broken trust, hurtful words, neglect and being unloved is something you never fully heal from.

Signs you have emotionally abusive parents

1. Narcissism.

A classic sign of a narcissistic type of parent is emotional manipulation. They love exercising control over their children. It’s either to make themselves look good, or they feel loving their children is a waste of time.

This can be displayed either of two ways:

Passive-aggressiveness, withdrawal, neglect, threats;

or

The need for control, over-protectiveness, extremely high expectations.

Both types of emotional manipulation leave the child confused. It also causes anxiety because they don’t know what their parent is going to do next.

Continue reading “Signs you have emotionally abusive parents”

Posted in Alienated children, Alienation, Child abuse, Child Maltreatment, Child Protection, Children's Rights, Parental Alienation PA

Child maltreatment—emotional abuse.

Parenting is no easy task. Raising a child in this day and age is both challenging and intimidating.

Experiencing the occasional mishap and lapse of judgment is normal. Every parent, after all, makes mistakes.

However, to a good parent, one thing is infallible—to love and care for your child as best as you can.

It is only when you regularly and deliberately fail to do so, that it becomes abuse.

Parental abuse is a prevalent thing in the United States. According to statistics,1 in 8 U.S. children experiences neglect, emotional, or physical abuse.

In this article, we’ll discuss one form of child maltreatment—emotional abuse.

What is it? What are the implications of emotional abuse? And what are the signs of an emotionally abusive parent?

Read ahead to know more. Continue reading “Child maltreatment—emotional abuse.”

Posted in Alienated children, Alienation, Child abuse, Child Maltreatment, Child Protection, Parental Alienation PA

Deep Down, You Feel Anger Toward Your Parent(s)

To this day, if you still feel indescribable anger toward your parent, it may be because of how they acted toward you in the past — in an emotionally abusive manner. “The parent in question may be nice to you now, they may treat you reasonably well, but you have an anger, a rage, or an angst when you think about them,” Joshua Klapow, Ph.D. clinical psychologist and host of The Kurre and Klapow Show, tells Bustle. “The sight of them makes you frustrated and stressed, and you may actually not be able to explain why, as you may have blocked out the abusive actions.” He adds that if you have ill feelings toward or even loathe your parent now, it is possible they were not the kind person then that they seem to be now.

Continue reading “Deep Down, You Feel Anger Toward Your Parent(s)”