Trauma, Violence, & Abuse

Two thirds of the studies (16 of 24, 67%) in our systematic review used the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (Bernstein et al., 2003) which measures five types of maltreatment experiences. Three types are related to abuse, namely, physical, sexual, and emotional abuse, whereas the two others are forms of neglect, physical and emotional. In their study, van Harmelen et al. (2013) used the NEMESIS interview (De Graff et al., 2002) to measure the same dimensions, apart from physical neglect, which is not documented. Veague & Hooley (2014) also used an interview protocol composed of 11 questions tapping on physical, sexual, and emotional abuse as well as witnessing domestic violence. Neukel and colleagues (2019) administered the Childhood Experience of Care and Abuse Interview (CECA; Bifulco et al., 1994) to participants to assess childhood abuse experiences (physical and/or sexual). Two studies relied on child protection reports as indicators of child maltreatment (Demers et al., 2018Jedd et al., 2015). One study used the Child Abuse and Trauma Scale (CATS; Sanders & Becker-Lausen, 1995) which measures physical and emotional abuse and neglect (Kirkham & Levita, 2019). Olsavsky et al. (2019) used three different questions, one for emotional abuse (being verbally insulted or threatened), one for physical abuse (being pushed, grabbed, slapped, or shoved), and one concerning the exposure to domestic violence. Finally, Kim et al. (2014) used the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI; George et al., 1996) to screen for adults with unresolved traumas, such as experiences of loss and/or abuse.

https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/15248380211029403

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