Many researchers say that neuroscience means the same as neurobiology. However, neurobiology looks at the biology of the nervous system, while neuroscience refers to anything to do with the nervous system. Neuroscientists are involved in a much wider scope of fields today than before.
The Intellectual Basis: Neurobiology is concerned with uncovering the biological mechanisms by which nervous systems mediate behavior. Over the past half century, much of neurobiology has focused on the cells of the nervous system. The structure and physiology of nerve cells (neurons) and supporting glial cells has been elucidated in considerable detail as well as the functional contacts (synapses) made between neurons. How individual nerve and receptor cells generate, carry, and transmit electrical and chemical signals is now well under-stood, and many substances that are used by neurons to communicate information have been identified. More recently, molecular biological approaches are revealing the molecules involved in carrying out neural activities, and we are rapidly gaining glimpses of how these molecules function.