A. A pervasive distrust and suspiciousness of others such that their motives are interpret- ed as malevolent, beginning by early adulthood and present in a variety of contexts, as indicated by four (or more) of the following:
- 1. Suspects, without sufficient basis, that others are exploiting, harming, or deceiving him or her.
- 2. Is preoccupied with unjustified doubts about the loyalty or trustworthiness of friends or associates.
- 3. Is reluctant to confide in others because of unwarranted fear that the information will be used maliciously against him or her.
- 4. Reads hidden demeaning or threatening meanings into benign remarks or events.
- 5. Persistently bears grudges (i.e., is unforgiving of insults, injuries, or slights).
- 6. Perceives attacks on his or her character or reputation that are not apparent to others and is quick to react angrily or to counterattack.
- 7. Has recurrent suspicions, without justification, regarding fidelity of spouse or sexual partner.
B. Does not occur exclusively during the course of schizophrenia, a bipolar disorder or a depressive disorder with psychotic features, or another psychotic disorder and is not attributable to the physiological effects of another medical condition.https://ajp.psychiatryonline.org/doi/pdf/10.1176/appi.ajp-rj.2016.110103