Although the precise etiology is unknown, both genetic and environmental factors have been found to play a role in the development of ASPD. Various studies in the past have shown differing estimations of heritability, ranging from 38% to 69%. Environmental factors that correlate to the development of antisocial personality disorder include adverse childhood experiences (both physical and sexual abuse, as well as neglect) along with childhood psychopathology (CD and ADHD).
Other studies stress the importance of both shared and non-shared environmental factors, including both family dynamics and peer relations on the development of ASPD. Research has focused on establishing the exact gene contributing to ASPD, and much evidence is pointing toward the 2p12 region of chromosome 2 and variation within AVPR1A. Interactions of specific genes with the environment have been an area of study as well, with evidence of variation in the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) contributing to the broad ranges of behavior elicited in antisocial personality disorder due to its effect on the influence of deviant peer affiliation.