The Parental Acceptance-Rejection Questionnaire (PARQ) is a self-report questionnaire designed to assess children’s current perceptions and adults’ retrospective remembrances of the degree to which they experienced parental (maternal and paternal) acceptance or rejection in childhood. The measure consists of four scales:
(1) warmth and affection (or coldness and lack of affection, when reverse scored),
(2) hostility and aggression,
(3) indifference and neglect, and
(4) undifferentiated rejection.
Undifferentiated rejection refers to individuals’ feelings that the parent does not really love them, want them, appreciate them, or care about them in some other way without necessarily having any objective indicator that the parent is cold, aggressive, or…