A comprehensive list of studies of paternal [103, 105–115], maternal [116–122], and parental [73, 75, 93, 123–126] behavior in relation to psychopathic traits is provided in Tables 6–8. There is one large-scale study of parenting and psychopathic traits . Dimensional Psychopathy correlates with reduced closeness, parenting stress, and unhappiness with the parenting role (Table 6). The three parenting studies that examined the correlation between paternal and maternal psychopathic traits found small to moderate correlations [107, 110, 126]. Psychopathy in fathers is associated with abandonment and IPV perpetration, especially in the context of maternal psychopathic features [110, 125, 126]. Outcome for children is worse when antisocial fathers maintain contact [105, 107, 110, 111, 127]. Psychopathic traits are associated with coercive, hostile and neglectful fathering, and low warmth. Paternal psychopathy impacts the structure of children’s lives due to poor marital quality, unstable housing, a chaotic home environment, and poverty . Maternal psychopathy is associated with lower age at first birth [109, 125]. Regardless of age, psychopathic mothers may be abusive and neglectful, and show inappropriately low levels of monitoring and inconsistent discipline; their mothering tends to be hostile, coercive, and shaming with low levels of warmth (Tables 5 and 6). Outcome for children is related to the home environment and parenting practices of psychopathic mothers [117, 119, 120]. There are no studies examining whether there is a dose-effect of exposure to psychopathic mothers as there is with psychopathic fathers with respect to negative outcome.