In 1951, a researcher by the name of John Bowlby suggested that parental
deprivation within the first 5 years of life would in turn affect the child‘s development in
negative ways, ultimately resulting in the child becoming an ―affectionless character‖ as
well as a delinquent (Bowlby, 1951; Farrington, 2007). Bowlby also suggested that
avoidantly attached children learn to express anger derived from their experiences of
having unresponsive or intrusive parental figures, displacing the resulting anger at unmet
needs outwardly towards their environment (Bowlby, 1973; Deklyen & Greenberg,
2008). Between the 1960s and the 1970s, Mary Ainsworth began doing research on
children‘s attachment to the adult figures in their lives. Through this research, she
devised the concept of the ―secure base‖ and from this also devised three distinct
attachment patterns in infants: secure attachment, avoidant attachment and anxious
attachment (Bretherton, 1992). Because of the nature of attachment, which is a direct
result of a parental figure‘s interactions with the child, using the pre-established
difference between sociopathy and psychopathology, it is presumed that attachment
styles may have causal effect on a sociopathic outcome rather than a psychopathic

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