The scales listed below were used in the correlation comparisons. Descriptive statistics for the scale scores and scale internal reliabilities are reported in the previously-published papers using these datasets (Austin and O’Donnell, 2013; Austin et al., 2014; Austin and Vahle, 2016).
Mini-markers (Saucier, 1994)
This set of 40 trait-descriptive adjectives provides scores on the Big Five dimensions of Neuroticism (N), Extraversion (E), Openness (O), Agreeableness (A), and Conscientiousness (C). Responses are on a five-point scale indicating how accurately the adjective describes the respondent, with end points very inaccurately, very accurately.
HEXACO-60 (Ashton and Lee, 2009)
This 60-item scale assesses the personality dimensions of Honesty-Humility (H), Emotionality (E), Extraversion (X), Agreeableness (A), Conscientiousness (C), and Openness (O). Responses are on a five-point scale with end points strongly disagree, strongly agree.
Mach IV (Christie and Geis, 1970)
This 20-item scale assesses Machiavellianism, with responses on a five-point scale with end points strongly disagree, strongly agree.
NPI-16 (Ames et al., 2006)
This scale has 16 forced-choice items assessing grandiose narcissism.
Hypersensitive narcissism scale (Hendin and Cheek, 1997)
This 10-item scale, assesses vulnerable narcissism, with responses on a five-point scale with end points strongly disagree, strongly agree.
Levenson self-report psychopathy scale (Levenson et al., 1995)
This scale assesses primary (16 items) and secondary (10 items) psychopathy in general population samples, with responses on a five-point scale with end points strongly disagree, strongly agree.
Results are reported for total scores on the 144-item TEIQue (Petrides, 2009) and the 30-item TEIQue-SF (Petrides and Furnham, 2006). These measures have a 7-point response scale with end points completely disagree, completely agree.
Items selected for the MEOS-SF and MEOS-VSF.
|MEOS item||Item numbers used in Tables Tables2,2, ,33|
|43||Enhance 1||If someone is feeling anxious, I try to calm them down by talking with them.|
|38||Enhance 2||When someone is anxious about a problem, I try to help them work out a solution.|
|28||Enhance 3||If someone is anxious, I try to reassure them.|
|35||Enhance 4||When someone is under stress I try to boost their confidence in their ability to cope.|
|31||Enhance 5||When someone is unhappy, I show that I understand how they are feeling.|
|57||Enhance 6||If someone has a problem I offer to help if they need it.|
|46||Divert 1||If someone is angry, I try to divert their mood by being cheerful.|
|53||Divert 2||When someone is in a low mood I behave in a happy and cheerful way to make them feel better.|
|33||Divert 3||When someone is in a bad mood I try to divert them by telling jokes or funny stories.|
|22||Divert 4||When someone is unhappy I try to cheer them by talking about something positive.|
|3||Divert 5||I sometimes use humor to try to lift another person’s mood.|
|45||Divert 6||If someone is being awkward, I try to defuse the situation by being cheerful and pleasant.|
|21||Worsen 1||I use anger to get others to do things that I want them to do.|
|19||Worsen 2||I sometimes put someone down in public to make them feel bad.|
|32||Worsen 3||I know how to make someone feel ashamed about something that they have done in order to stop them from doing it again.|
|47||Worsen 4||I can make someone feel anxious so that they will act in a particular way.|
|29||Worsen 5||I use criticism to make others feel that they should work harder.|
|20||Worsen 6||If I don’t like someone’s behavior I make negative comments in order to make them feel bad.|
|4||Inauthentic 1||I sometimes sulk to make someone feel guilty.|
|44||Inauthentic 2||I sometimes sulk to get someone to change their behavior.|
|5||Inauthentic 3||If someone’s behavior has caused me distress, I try to make them feel guilty about it.|
|37||Inauthentic 4||I sometimes use flattery to gain or keep someone’s good opinion.|
|12||Inauthentic 5||If I want someone to do something for me, I try to elicit sympathy from them.|
|2||Inauthentic 6||If I want someone to do something for me, I am especially nice to them before asking.|
|30||Conceal 1||I often conceal feelings of anger and distress from others.|
|36||Conceal 2||I hide my feelings so others won’t worry about me.|
|8||Conceal 3||When someone has made me upset or angry, I often conceal my feelings.|
|18||Conceal 4||When someone has made me upset or angry, I tend to downplay my feelings.|
|23||Conceal 5||I don’t believe in telling others about my problems – I keep them to myself.|
|26||Conceal 6||If someone tries to make me feel better when I am feeling low, I pretend to feel happier to please that person.|
All 30 items are used in the MEOS-SF. The 24 items of the MEOS-VSF are shown in italic.