Perceived Parental Warmth, and Children’s Psychological Adjustment, and Personality Dispositions
The purpose of this meta-analysis is to address three questions drawn from one of the basic postulates of parental acceptance–rejection theory: (1) To what extent are children’s perceptions of parental warmth related to their psychological adjustment? (2) To what extent are children’s perceptions of parental warmth related to their personality dispositions? (3) Do relations found in these questions vary by the gender of parents? The meta-analysis was based on 30 studies from 16 countries in five continents involving 12,087 children (52 % boys and 48 % girls). All studies included in the meta-analysis, used child versions of the Parental Acceptance–Rejection Questionnaire for Mothers and for Fathers (Child PARQ: Mothers and Fathers), as well as the child version of the Personality Assessment Questionnaire (Child PAQ). Results showed that perceived parental warmth correlated significantly with psychological adjustment and personality dispositions—including hostility and aggression, independence, positive self-esteem, positive self-adequacy, emotional responsiveness, emotional stability, and positive worldview of children across ethnicities, cultures, gender, and geographical boundaries.