A Test of Two Brief Measures of Grandiose Narcissism:
Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI-40).
The NPI-40(Raskin & Terry, 1988) is a 40-item self-report measure of trait narcissism. The reliability across samples ( N 1,316) was .87.
Narcissistic Personality Inventory–16 (NPI-16).
The NPI-16(Ames et al., 2006) is a 16-item self-report measure of trait narcissism derived from the NPI-40. The reliability across samples( N 1,316) was .75.
Pathological Narcissism Inventory (PNI).
The PNI (Pincus etal., 2009) is a 52-item self-report measure of both vulnerable and grandiose narcissism traits. The PNI contains four vulnerable narcissism subscales (i.e., Contingent Self-Esteem, Hiding theSelf, Devaluing, and Entitlement Rage) and three grandiose narcissism subscales (i.e., Self-Sacrificing Self-Enhancement, Grandiose Fantasies, and Exploitativeness). Alphas in Sample 2 ranged from .74 to .94, and alphas in Sample 5 ranged from .82 to .95.
Narcissistic Grandiosity Scale (NGS).
The NGS (Rosenthal,Hooley, & Steshenko, 2007) is a measure of grandiose narcissism,which requires participants to rate themselves on 16 adjectives such as “superior” and “omnipotent” on a 1 (not at all ) to 7( extremely
) scale. The reliability was the same in both Sample 4 and Sample 5 ( .96). Scores from the NGS are significantly correlated with other measures of grandiose narcissism and traits associated with narcissism such as agreeableness and extraversion(e.g., Miller, Price, & Campbell, 2012; Miller, Price, Gentile, et al.,2012).
Hypersensitive Narcissism Scale (HSNS).
The HSNS (Hen-din & Cheek, 1997) is a 10-item self-report measure of vulnerable narcissism. Alphas ranged from .66 (Sample 1) to .81 (Sample 5).
Psychological Entitlement Scale (PES).
The PES (Campbell, Bonacci, Shelton, Exline, & Bushman, 2004) is a nine-item self-report measure of the extent to which individuals believe that they are more deserving than others. Items are scored on a 1 ( strong disagreement ) to 7 ( strong agreement ) scale. Alphas were .86(sample 2) and .88 (samples 4 and 5).
Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSE).
The RSE (Rosenberg,1965 ) is a 10-item measure of global self-esteem. Alphas ranged from .88 (Sample 4) to .91 (Sample 5).
Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R).
The NEO-PI-R (Costa & McCrae, 1992) is a 240-item self-report measure of the five-factor model (FFM), which includes the domains of Neuoticism, Extraversion, Openness to Experience, Agreeableness,and Conscientiousness. Alphas for the domains ranged from .87 to.92, .89 to .91, and .86 to .94 for Samples 1, 2, and 6, respectively.
Parental reports of FFM personality.
Parental ratings of personality were collected from participants in Sample 1. A packet containing several questionnaires was sent to the homes of participants’ parents. The parent(s) completed an informant version of the NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI; Costa &McCrae, 1992), a 60-item measure of the FFM domains. Alphas for these domains ranged from .63 (Openness) to .90 (Conscientiousness).
Using the protocol described by Oltmanns,Friedman, Fiedler, and Turkheimer (2004), each participant in Sample 2 was individually videotaped for 60 s while answering the question: “What do you enjoy doing?” Each clip was rated by an average of 11 raters who were doctoral students in a clinical psychology program. The graduate students rated the clips on the following constructs (using one item per construct) using a 5-point Likert scale: Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness to Experience,Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, physical attractiveness, likability, and narcissism. The five personality domain descriptions were consistent with FFM definitions (e.g., Costa & McCrae, 1992). Node scriptors were given for physical attractiveness. Likability was gauged with the question “How likable do you find this individual(would you want to get to know him/her better)?” For narcissism,raters were given several descriptors (i.e., self-centered, grandiose,and overly confident) to go with the “narcissistic” label. Intra class correlations (ICCs) indicated that inter rater reliability was high,ranging from .77 (likability) to .92 (physical attractiveness), witha median of .86. Composites were created by taking the mean of all available ratings.
A thin-slice is a brief (e.g., 60 s) video-recorded clip of an individual’s behavior that is then coded by blind-raters for various personality traits.The clip can involve person answering questions about themselves,performing an activity, or interacting with others in a group setting. The purpose of thin-slice ratings is to assess how much information regarding an individual’s personality can be gleaned from a first impression.
Data from all samples were screened for excessive missing data or random responding (e.g., high numbers of consecutive answers of the same number such as “1”).
Interpersonal Adjective Scales (IAS).
The IAS (Wiggins,1995) contains 64 adjectives, scored on a 1 to 8 scale, that providescores on the interpersonal circumplex (IPC). The scale includeseight octant scores and scores on the two primary axes of dominance and nurturance. The alphas for the octants ranged from .79(Unassuming-Ingenuous) to .91 (Cold-hearted).
Structured Clinical Interview for DSM–IV Personality Disorders—Personality Questionnaire (SCID-II-PQ).
The SCID-II-PQ (First, Gibbon, Spitzer, Williams, & Benjamin, 1997) is a119-item self-report measure that assesses the diagnostic criteria for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4thed., text rev.; DSM–IV–TR; American Psychiatric Association,1994) personality disorders. In Sample 2, the full scale was used,and it manifested reliabilities ranging from .44 (obsessive-compulsive) to .89 (antisocial). In Samples 1, 4, and 5, only theNPD subscale was used, with alphas ranging from .65 to .82. InSample 6, a SCID-II-PQ semi structured interview was used to assess NPD ( .76; inter rater reliability ICC .77).
Personality Inventory for DSM–5 (PID5).
The PID5(Krueger, Derringer, Markon, Watson, & Skodol, 2012) is a220-item self-report measure that was created to assess the 25 personality traits proposed for use as part of a new alternative diagnostic model for personality disorders in the DSM–5
(to be included in Section 3 in order to stimulate further research on this approach). Items are scored on a 0 (Very false or Often False) to 3 (Very True or Often True
) scale. Alphas across facets ranged from .68 to .94. The PID5 scales manifest good structural validity (Wright et al., 2012) and strong correlations with DSM–IV– TR (American Psychiatric Association, 2000)personality disorder scores (Hopwood, Thomas, Markon,Wright, & Krueger, 2012).
Psychopathy measures: Self-Report Psychopathy Scale–III(SRP-III).
The SRP-III (Paulhus, Neumann, & Hare, in press)is a 64-item self-report measure of psychopathy that has four subscales. Factor 1 psychopathy is measured by the Interper-sonal Manipulation (SRP-IPM; .86) and Callous Affect(SRP-CA;
.80) scales, whereas Factor 2 psychopathy ismeasured by the Erratic Lifestyle (SRP-ELS; .81) and Antisocial Behaviors (SRP-ASB; .78) scales. The SRP-III scales demonstrate substantial correlations with alternative measures of psychopathy (Few, Miller, & Lynam, 2013; Seib-ert, Miller, Few, Zeichner, & Lynam, 2011) and have a well-validated factor structure (e.g., Neal & Sellbom,2012)