Neuroplasticity-based training strategies are emerging as a new class of therapeutic tools providing a new level of organic treatment of neurological and psychiatric illness. Because they can broadly address neurological impairments and disease-driven neurological distortions, they hold promise of driving more complete and more enduring changes in the brains of patients with many brain-related clinical indications. Training programs constructed on these bases are relatively inexpensive to produce and validate, and can be delivered to patients in need of help at low cost via the Internet. Confirmation of use, compliance, and training benefits are routinely recorded, with the supervising clinician “in the loop,” as an integral part of program use. Patient use and outcomes are measured by assessments embedded directly in these programs. We strongly believe these new therapeutic tools shall be a large part of the picture of improved medical treatments of developmental and acquired-adult neurological and psychiatric impairments and disease over the coming decade.