Why do people make false reports?
People can be tempted to make false reports to the police for a number of reasons. It may be to make up financial loss, for insurance purposes, to avoid other criminal offences or even to avoid getting into trouble with their family or loved ones.
What could happen to people making false reports?
Making a false report could lead to a fine, a conviction for wasting police time or even a prison sentence for the more serious offence of perverting the course of justice. The offence carries a maximum penalty of six months imprisonment.
Less serious cases may result in a fine of £80 for people aged 16 or over and £40 for under people under 16 years old.
Continue reading “False Reports”
Under s 5(2) of the Criminal Law Act 1967 (CLA 1967), it is an offence to cause a wasteful employment of the police by knowingly making a false report – either orally or in writing – to the police or anyone else that:
- an offence has been committed;
- there is a real threat to the safety of any persons or property; or
- they have relevant information concerning some police enquiry
If you are caught wasting police time you could be jailed for up to six months and/or fined. Instead of taking you to court, the police might issue you with a fixed penalty notice under the Criminal Justice and Police Act 2001 (CJPA 2001). This means you will have to pay a £90 fine but you won’t get a criminal conviction (the details will still go on the police computer though).
Perverting the course of justice
If a false report you made has particularly serious consequences, the police could charge you with perverting the course of justice instead, which carries a maximum penalty of life imprisonment. Police are more likely to charge you with this more serious offence, rather than wasting police time if:
- the false report was motivated by malice;
- you continued to stick to your false story, even when there were ample opportunities to retract;
- you falsely accused someone of a crime and they were charged and remanded in custody or tried, convicted and / or sentenced;
- the person you falsely accused suffered major damage to their reputation;
- you have a history and/or previous convictions of making false reports.
Continue reading “Wasting police time”
If you are accused of child abuse, whether sexual or violent in nature, or abuse that is supposed to have occurred in front of your children, you may find yourself on the receiving end of a ‘visit’ from Social Services, which may seem casual and friendly but is actually recorded on a computer and remains on a social services file indefinitely.
If Social Services decide not to do anything about it, there will be ‘no action taken’. It is well worth checking what is on the file in these circumstances to make sure that what has been recorded is accurate. You are unlikely to get an apology or thanks for your cooperation.
If Social Services decide that they need to take further action, they can hold a ‘core assessment’ meeting where they can direct you to do certain things as a parent. Your child could be put on the ‘at risk’ register. If this happens, it could be that your authority over your child’s welfare may be shared with Social Services, or your child could be taken into care, or adopted into another family.
Your Child’s File
Whatever information is on file about your child, it can be seen by medical professionals, health visitors, teachers and school staff, housing authorities, police, public and some voluntary workers who have contact with children, and youth workers. That is why it is important to ensure that whatever is recorded is correct. Continue reading “Being Falsely Accused of Child Abuse”
Neurotics hate to think of themselves as the injuring party and would rather carry the burden of abuse than see themselves as an abuser. Disturbed characters know this well. So, when they want to take advantage, a good one-two punch is to play the victim and then vilify the real victim.
Neurotics, being who they are, are very vulnerable to the ploy of vilifying the victim. When a neurotic individual finally gets up enough nerve to confront a disturbed character about their behavior, within minutes the disturbed character is generally able to turn the tables and cast the victim of the hurtful behavior in a bad light. In my book, In Sheep’s Clothing [Amazon-US | Amazon-UK](?), I give an example of a mother who finally had to confront her aggressive child’s increasingly disruptive behavior. When she did, the child launched a verbal barrage that included: “You’re always saying bad things about me” and “You act like you hate me.” As conscientious as the mother was, she then began to wonder if she actually hadn’t become too critical lately and if indeed her behavior might truly look to her child like she hated the child. She never stopped to think that if the child actually believed that she never had a good thing to say and that she actually hated her, then there would be absolutely no point in the child’s pointing out those things, because such words would have absolutely no impact on a woman with a heart of stone. It never occurred to her that the child must instinctively and deeply know that she actually cared quite a bit and that her conscientiousness was her biggest vulnerability. In other words, it never occurred to her that her child knew exactly what to say and do to manipulate her. It also didn’t occur to her that by allowing the child to continually use those tactics to manipulate her, she was helping to ensure that the child would continue resisting accepting the principles of responsible conduct she was trying to instill in her. Continue reading “Vilifying the Victim”
Most of the time, when the manipulator casts themselves as a victim, they don’t really see themselves as victimized, they just really want the other party to see them as wounded, injured, or suffering in some way in order to elicit sympathy, cloud the picture about just who is the victimizer and who is the victim, and otherwise impression-manage the real victim.
This is the eighth article in a series on behaviors which disturbed characters frequently engage in that not only keep them from becoming responsible but also serve as effective ways to manipulate others.
One of the things the disturbed character knows very well about relatively well-adjusted or “neurotic” individuals is that they hate to see someone else suffer. Not only that, they hate it more to think of themselves as the cause of someone else’s suffering. That’s why playing the victim role is such an effective tactic. Especially when they’re confronted about their own malicious behavior, disordered characters will try and turn the tables by trying to get you to see them as the injured party. The eminent researcher Stanton Samenow calls this “taking the victim stance.” Continue reading “Playing the Victim”
Disordered characters, especially predators, don’t really want us to know who they really are. They tell us what they think we want to hear so that we will think them more like us.
Research continues to demonstrate how different the Predatory Aggressive Personality is from most of us (see “Understanding the Predatory Aggressive Personality”). Some recent research even suggests that the brains of individuals diagnosed as having psychopathic or sociopathic personalities operate very differently from the brains of normal individuals.
Some areas of the human brain are particularly involved in the production of emotion, in responding to emotionally-charged situations, and in the recognition of material that carries emotional connotations. Other areas of the brain are more specifically involved in language, and there are particular portions of these areas that are very involved in the recognition of words and their meanings.
One relatively recent study exposed both normal individuals and psychopaths to words (flashed before them visually) that were thought to be either emotion-neutral (i.e., having no significant emotion-evoking character) or emotionally-charged in some way. Words for inanimate objects like door or shelf would be examples of emotion-neutral words. Words that typically involve human activity and emotional interplay such as marriage, divorce, loneliness, etc., were considered emotionally-charged.
Normal individuals experienced activity in the brain associated with language and recognizing word meaning when they were presented with emotion-neutral words. The brains of psychopaths behaved in a similar way when they were presented with the emotion-neutral words. But when the emotionally-tinged words were displayed, the activity in the brains of the psychopaths was very different from that of normal individuals. In the normal individuals, brain activity occurred both in the areas associated with language processing and word meaning as well as the areas involved in emotion. In the brains of the psychopaths, however, there was no activity in the areas typically associated with emotion. It was as if the brains of the psychopaths processed information that has some emotional impact on most of us as if it had the same quality as an inanimate object. Continue reading “Understanding the Predatory Aggressive, Part 2”
Predatory Aggressive Personalities (i.e., psychopaths or sociopaths) consider themselves superior to the rest of the human race. They view individuals with inhibitions rooted in emotional bonding to others as inferior creatures and, therefore, their rightful prey.
Aggressive Personalities include the Unbridled Aggressive, who is frequently in conflict with the law; the Channeled-Aggressive, who generally limits ruthlessness to non-criminal activity; the Covert-Aggressive, who cloaks their cruelty under a veneer of civility and manipulates others in the process; and the Sadistic Aggressive, whose principal aim is to demean and injure others:
But by far the most pathological aggressive personality is the one I prefer to label the Predatory Aggressive Personality. All of the aggressive personalities are among the most seriously disturbed in character of the various personality types, and the Predatory Aggressive Personality is the most seriously character disordered.
Many labels have been given in the past to the personality type I call the Predatory Aggressive. The term psychopath was used in the early 20th century but was later more commonly replaced with the term sociopath. Recently, the term psychopath has regained popularity. But because I think personality is best define by an individual’s “style” of relating to others, I think the term predatory most accurately describes the interpersonal modus operandi of these individuals.
Through the years, several opinions have been offered about what lies at the core of this most serious personality disturbance. Cleckley noted that their extraordinary difference in makeup from most people, especially with respect to matters of conscience or qualities long thought to comprise the “soul” of humanity bordered on an almost psychotic level of difference. Hare points out that their lack of capacity to feel emotionally connected to or bonded with the rest of humanity is at the root of their “callous, senseless, and remorseless use and abuse of others.” Continue reading “Understanding the Predatory Aggressive Personality”
The warning signs of involvement with someone who may be afflicted are as follows:
- Success At Any Cost. A close inspection of past relationships may show a failure to treat people kindly for the promise of a grandiose, yet superficial success. Beware of flaunted expenses, especially if there are a lack of people to share in the enjoyment.
- Narcissists may be hypersexual, often in relation to power and control. Incest is frequently reported as well as a lack of regard for partner and boundaries.
- Incessant Blaming. Lack of personal responsibility is a key sign. Often a narcissist will play ‘the victim’ even when he/she has hurt someone else.
- Violence. Since their ego is so fragile to begin with, any criticism received feels like an attack. They fight back much harder than what is doled out. Someone who uses violence frequently, demonstrates lack of impulse control and may also have multiple addictions.
- Manipulation. Pitting people against one another for the ultimate goal of loyalty is often used by narcissists. In this case, loyalty often means isolation.
If you are involved with someone who has these traits, most professionals advise leaving. There is no treatment for narcissism and statistically the outcome for change is low. The longer someone stays in a relationship with a narcissist, the worse they feel. Continue reading “Success At Any Cost”
Sadism is taking pleasure in humiliating someone or causing them pain.
The DSM-5 lists sexual sadism disorder as a condition that involves sexual arousal linked to the idea of causing a non-consenting person unwanted pain. But sadism itself is not a mental health diagnosis, nor is it always sexual.
People with sadistic tendencies may:
- enjoy hurting others
- enjoy watching others experience pain
- derive sexual excitement from seeing others in pain
- spend a lot of time fantasizing about hurting other people, even if they don’t actually do so
- want to hurt others when irritated or angry
- enjoy humiliating others, especially in public situations
- tend toward aggressive actions or behavior
- behave in controlling or domineering ways
Some experts suggest that sadistic behavior helps set NPD and malignant narcissism apart. Narcissism often involves self-centered pursuit of desires and goals, but people with NPD might still show some remorse or regret for hurting others in the process. Continue reading “Sadism”
Malignant narcissism refers to a specific, less common manifestation of narcissistic personality disorder. Some experts consider this presentation of narcissism the most severe subtype.
It isn’t recognized as a formal diagnosis in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5). But many psychologists and mental health experts have used this term to describe a specific set of personality traits.
According to Campbell’s Psychiatric Dictionary, malignant narcissism combines characteristics of:
Read on to learn more about malignant narcissism, including common characteristics, how it compares to sociopathy, and whether it’s treatable. Continue reading “Unpacking Malignant Narcissism”