For liability for blackmail to arise under TA 1968, the demand must be accompanied by menaces. These can be express or implied.
What is meant by menaces?
Menaces means that there must be some high degree of coercion to force an individual to undertake a particular course of action.
Do menaces have to be threats of physical violence?
Although menaces can include a threat of physical violence, other forms – such as a threat to expose a secret – can constitute blackmail for the purposes of TA 1968.
Does the individual who is making the demand have to be the same individual who will carry out the menaces?
There is no requirement to show that the individual who is making the demand is the same individual who is carrying out the menaces. Neither is it a requirement to show that the person making the demand is in a position to undertake the threatened action.