TRAUMA MAY ALSO STEM FROM A CAREGIVER OR PARENT TRAUMA. EXAMPLES OF THIS INCLUDE:
- A parent who is incarcerated
- A parent who abuses alcohol or drugs
- Parental ill-health
- Parental separation (e.g. divorce)
Trauma may also be caused by natural disasters such as earthquakes, floods, or hurricanes; an act of violence (e.g. mass shooting or terrorist attack), and in other life-threatening conditions like a motor vehicle accident.
THE ‘ACE’ STUDY
“We found a strong … relationship between … exposure to abuse or household dysfunction during childhood and multiple risk factors for … the leading causes of death in adults.” – Felitti, V.J., Et. Al (source)
According to the ‘ACE’ study, there are ten different types of childhood trauma across two categories: personal and environmental. Trauma of the personal type includes emotional neglect, physical abuse, physical neglect, sexual abuse, and verbal abuse. Environmental trauma relates to family members and includes having an alcoholic parent, living with a mentally ill family member, having a mother that is the victim of domestic abuse, or the absence of a parent following abandonment, death, or divorce.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) finds that children who experience Adverse Childhood Experiences, or ‘ACEs,’ are more likely to become future victims or perpetrators of violence. Researchers also found a strong correlation between ACEs and:
- Disrupted neurodevelopment
- Social, emotional, and cognitive impairment
- Adoption of health-risk behaviors
- Disease, disability, and social problems
- Early death