Defining normal should be primary. Yet, without an understanding of what state or condition people have deviated from, and should be returned to, we do such things as: administering powerful medications; electrically inducing seizures; and, teaching activities to alter the content of cognitive processes. In the midst of all these activities, many people manage to reduce their psychological distress and resume living the life they wish to live. A large number of people, however, do not. A conservative conclusion from this situation would be that, currently, without a robust understanding of human functioning, our treatments help people serendipitously rather than systematically.