A new study, published in Psychiatry Research, has concluded that psychiatric diagnoses are scientifically worthless as tools to identify discrete mental health disorders.
The study, led by researchers from the University of Liverpool, involved a detailed analysis of five key chapters of the latest edition of the widely used Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM), on ‘schizophrenia’, ‘bipolar disorder’, ‘depressive disorders’, ‘anxiety disorders’ and ‘trauma-related disorders’.
Diagnostic manuals such as the DSM were created to provide a common diagnostic language for mental health professionals and attempt to provide a definitive list of mental health problems, including their symptoms.
The main findings of the research were:
- Psychiatric diagnoses all use different decision-making rules
- There is a huge amount of overlap in symptoms between diagnoses
- Almost all diagnoses mask the role of trauma and adverse events
- Diagnoses tell us little about the individual patient and what treatment they need
Some people are really good at hiding their true selves and intentions. Emotional manipulators, for instance, know how to play people in a way that gets their needs met. Unfortunately, you can’t always figure out you’re being used until it’s too late. But there are some things you can pay close attention to. According to experts, there are certain lines emotional manipulators use all the time in order to control others.
“Emotional manipulators are individuals who are typically highly insecure and attempt to threaten or damage our own healthy emotional experience,” Mary Beth Somich, licensed professional counseling associate, tells Bustle. They may do this by belittling others, manipulating them, or demonstrating behaviors that compromise the mental health and self-esteem of those around them.
It’s not uncommon to come across people who boast of being in multiple relationships, none of which are long-term or stable. And there will always be a sob story behind their break-up, which is capable of moving even the most unemotional person. Such people are too quick to fall in love and even quicker at getting out of it.
1. The law of cause and effect
2. The law of creation
3. The law of humility
4. The law of growth
We know that our children and families are being harmed by parental alienation daily. According to the recent Westminster Dialogues, a conservative estimate of 1 million children are involved in repeat court cases at the moment with alienation at the core. That will just be the tip of the ice-berg. It is not acceptable.
The Guardian article states “as early as 2001, American researchers were warning that too often in divorce situations, all children resisting contact were being labelled “alienated” and their parents as abusive and “alienating parents”. That does beg the first question “what has happened in the last 15 years to improve the situation?”
She says social workers dismissed both her own and her children’s accounts of what life had been like with her estranged husband.
“Nobody cares about the domestic abuse at all,” she said.
Usually in my Psychology Today articles I address my specialties—marriage education and self-help for negative emotions. At the same time, I recently have had a number of clients in my clinical practice who face parental alienation situations. Their challenges totally tear at my heartstrings, motivating me to write on this subject. The difficulty is that attorneys, judges, and the mental health professionals who advise them on cases of parental alienation too often lack enough understanding of the phenomenon of alienation to create appropriate outcomes.