As IRA is more proactive—premeditated and instrumental—in nature, it would appeal more to strategic, pragmatic and manipulative individuals akin to Machiavellianism and psychopathy, rather than narcissism. In contrast, narcissism has been more associated with reactive aggression in response to perceived provocation [e.g., ego-threat; (17)]. Thus, our findings do not mean that narcissistic individuals are not aggressive per se, but suggest that IRA is a type of aggression they are unlikely to engage in—perhaps because it would not provide them with admiration and positive social standing they desire. Moreover, when studied independently, narcissism is split into two subtypes, grandiose and vulnerable (50), which manifest differently on general personality measures [e.g., the Big Five; (10)] and show diverging associations with hostility [e.g., vulnerable narcissism is linked to hostile behaviors once grandiosity and attention-seeking are controlled for; (51)]. However, DT measures such as the SD3 focus on grandiose narcissism at the expense of vulnerable narcissism. To thoroughly understand the relationship between narcissism and aggression, we need to consider the conceptualization of narcissism as utilized by various psychometric measures.