In the UK, human rights are protected by the Human Rights Act 1998. Only public authorities must follow the Human Rights Act.
This means you can take action under the Human Rights Act if a public authority has breached your human rights. But you can’t take action against a private individual as they’re not covered by the Act.
Public authorities which are also public sector organisations like NHS hospitals, the police or schools must follow the Human Rights Act in everything they do, even if it’s not a public function. This means they must also follow the Act when they do things of a private nature, like making employment contracts.
Private organisations only have to follow the Human Rights Act when they carry out their public functions.
What if your Convention rights have been breached by a private organisation or individual who’s not a public authority?
The Human Rights Act says courts should consider human rights in all cases they hear. This is because they’re also public authorities and so must follow the Human Rights Act.
All courts in the UK must apply the law in a way which is compatible with human rights. This means they must interpret and give effect to the law in a way which is as close to the Human Rights Act as possible. They must do this in all cases they hear even if they don’t involve a public authority.