In this science talk, David Williams of the Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health looks at the social and behavioral factors–including socioeconomic status, race, discrimination, and place–that play a role in triggering toxic stress for children and adults. He also discusses what effective solutions for reducing toxic stress and improving health must look like. Williams is the Florence and Laura Norma Professor of Public Health and a Professor of African and African American Studies and Sociology at the Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health and a Center-affiliated faculty member.