The rapid growth of neuroimaging approaches to the study of the mind in the last two decades has given rise to new subfields, such as affective and social neuroscience, concerned with mapping mental states, emotions, personality, and dispositions onto the brain. Findings from neuroscience can illuminate the neurobiological correlates of psychopathology and are frequently invoked in theories of autism, schizophrenia, depression, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and antisocial personality disorder (ASPD). These technologies also provide new ways of distinguishing groups of people based on gender, age, language, and other dimensions of social identity in terms of structural or functional differences in neural processing. Very recently, cognitive neuroscientists have turned to the subject of cultural difference and have begun to investigate how culture interacts with the neural mechanisms associated with social, emotional, attentional, and perceptual processes. If cultural variations in the symptoms of psychiatric disorders are reflected in structural and functional differences in the brain, then data from cultural neuroscience might be used in diagnostic assessment (Han and Northoff, 2008).