- PA creates confusion and fear in the child: who am I if am not allowed to love or get love from my mother/father – do I have to reject half of me?
- The HATE-wolf is fed – instead of the LOVE-wolf, see story below.
- The child´s rewritten family history after having been mentally kidnapped and totally identified with the parent who has taken the child as hostage (compare the Stockholm syndrome) makes the child reject not only one of the parents but also everything connected with that parent.
- The lack of ambivalence is probably the most significant sign for a child´s unjustified rejection of a parent. This differentiates Parental Alienation from Estrangement. Estrangement is the child´s justified rejection of a parent who has done very bad things to the child. In those cases the child still has an ambivalence, meaning the child still has a longing for that parent.