This individual is capable of emotional investment in his family, his mate or, perhaps, his dog, but has a constricted “circle of empathy” and reacts to most people only as objects. Although it is clear that, unlike most other mammals, our species is capable of empathy, capable of sharing to some extent the pain and the joy of other human beings and even other species, it is also clear that this capacity must be cultivated by experience. There are, moreover, wide individual differences in the breadth or inclusiveness of people’s circles of empathy. My wife shares the pain of all creatures from children, wolves, and elephants to ladybugs and spiders but human hunters, trappers, and most lawyers and politicians fall outside her circle of empathy. A child reared by parents who dislike animals as well as most of their neighbors is likely to have a constricted circle of empathy. When we are exposed too long and too often to stress and the suffering of others, most of us defensively constrict out empathic tendencies.