Posted in Parental Alienation & Narcissistic Personality Disorder

Complex Trauma in Childhood

Complex trauma in childhood is defined as “the experience of multiple, chronic and
prolonged, developmentally adverse traumatic events, most often of an interpersonal nature, often within the child’s caregiving system” (van der Kolk, 2005, p.2). These events may include sexual abuse, physical abuse or neglect, emotional abuse or neglect, or the witnessing of violence within the family system (Australian Institute of Family Studies, 2013). Complex traumatic events in childhood and their potential for negative outcomes in adult life differ from ‘simple trauma’, or a single traumatic event, such as natural disaster.

Complex Trauma in Childhood, a Psychiatric Diagnosis in Adulthood: Making Meaning of a Double-Edged Phenomenon (PDF Download Available). Available from:



Living the dream in SW France-Retired Love Swimming, Rambling, Labrador's, Pilates, Photography, Astronomy, Reiki, Travelling. Currently studying Psychology, and member of NAAP. I believe in truth, honesty, karma and integrity! KEEPING IT REAL - No one likes someone who lies and lives a different life on social media than they do in real life. ≧◔◡◔≦

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