Adverse and traumatic experiences in childhood have been linked to a number of symptoms, including dissociation. We provide an overview of the theoretical and scientific literature on the relationship between antecedent trauma and dissociation. Further, we discuss the effects of disrupted attachment and dissociation on emotional, cognitive, and neurobiological development. Within treatment and research settings, high dissociation and its comorbid conditions can impact retention and alter treatment outcomes, making it crucial that clinicians and researchers understand methods of assessing, treating, and studying dissociation. We review the assessment and treatment of dissociative conditions, including the dissociative subtype of posttraumatic stress disorder and the dissociative disorders. Finally, we highlight areas for future research.