by Robert A. Evans, Ph.D.
One of the most authoritative works on differentiating between alienation and actual child abuse was written by Dr. Richard Gardner in his 1999 article in The American Journal of Family Therapy. Little has been written since then that sheds new light on this issue. Courts continue to be challenged in protecting children and determining what is in their best interests. This article will briefly review Dr. Gardner’s article and cite more recent work on this topic.