Attachment theory deals with relationship. The relationship between a follower and a guru-figure is often a “disorganized” attachment. The guru takes on a parental role and becomes the only significant source of comfort, but at the same time is the significant source of distress.
Alex cites the originator of attachment theory, John Bowlby, “Most people think of fear as running away from something. But there is another side to it. We run TO someone …”
This disorganized attachment creates a double bind, where the guru traumatizes the follower, who then looks to the instigator of that trauma for resolution. Add psychological and often physical isolation from the wider world, and you have a recipe for ideological slavery.