Childhood maltreatment, particularly when it originates within the family, can lead to significant challenges to personal recovery and subsequent interpersonal relationships. This chapter reviewed evidence for social support as a promotive (main effect) and/or a protective/buffering (moderating effect) factor in overcoming the negative effects of child maltreatment. Findings revealed promotive effects across many studies, but less consistent evidence for a protective effect. Social support generally acted as a buffer against negative outcomes for individuals with lower, rather than higher, exposure to maltreatment. In addition, family or network social support served as a risk factor within certain situations or contexts. The nuanced findings regarding the impact of social support provided a better understanding of the benefits and limits of social support following child maltreatment. Therapists working with survivors of childhood maltreatment should explore the quality and characteristics of the social support provided to assess whether it is a helpful resource or if alternate sources of support should be cultivated.