Self-reported information on CTEs was collected by the question: “Have you over a long period experienced any of the following? (as a child),” followed by three types of traumatic experiences: (i) Being tormented, or threatened with violence; (ii) Being beaten, kicked, or the victim of other types of violence, and; (iii) Someone in your close family using alcohol or drugs in such a way that caused you worry. Respondents who ticked one or more of these responses were classified as exposed to psychological abuse, physical abuse, and substance abuse distress, respectively. To assess whether there is an additive effect of CTEs on mental health, health, and well-being, we constructed a separate variable of trauma frequency: 0 = not exposed to any CTE (reference), 1 = exposed to any one CTE, 2 = exposed to any two CTEs, 3 = exposed to all three CTEs.
Social support and behavioral factors in adulthood were used as mediators. Social support was measured with indicators of instrumental/tangible support and emotional support. Instrumental or tangible support was measured as: “Do you have enough friends who can give you help and support when you need it?” (yes = 0, no = 1). Emotional support was measured as: “Do you have enough friends you can talk confidentially with?” (yes = 0, no = 1). Behavioral factors were measured as: “Do you/did you smoke daily?” (yes, currently; yes, previously; never (reference)); and “How many units of alcohol (a beer, a glass of wine, or other alcoholic beverage) do you usually drink when you drink alcohol?” 1 = 1–4, 2 = 5–6, 3 = 7–9, 4 = 10 or more).
read the full article here:– https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4879780/