Posted in Parental Alienation & Narcissistic Personality Disorder

Childhood traumatic experiences (CTEs)

Self-reported information on CTEs was collected by the question: “Have you over a long period experienced any of the following? (as a child),” followed by three types of traumatic experiences: (i) Being tormented, or threatened with violence; (ii) Being beaten, kicked, or the victim of other types of violence, and; (iii) Someone in your close family using alcohol or drugs in such a way that caused you worry. Respondents who ticked one or more of these responses were classified as exposed to psychological abuse, physical abuse, and substance abuse distress, respectively. To assess whether there is an additive effect of CTEs on mental health, health, and well-being, we constructed a separate variable of trauma frequency: 0 = not exposed to any CTE (reference), 1 = exposed to any one CTE, 2 = exposed to any two CTEs, 3 = exposed to all three CTEs.

Mediators

Social support and behavioral factors in adulthood were used as mediators. Social support was measured with indicators of instrumental/tangible support and emotional support. Instrumental or tangible support was measured as: “Do you have enough friends who can give you help and support when you need it?” (yes = 0, no = 1). Emotional support was measured as: “Do you have enough friends you can talk confidentially with?” (yes = 0, no = 1). Behavioral factors were measured as: “Do you/did you smoke daily?” (yes, currently; yes, previously; never (reference)); and “How many units of alcohol (a beer, a glass of wine, or other alcoholic beverage) do you usually drink when you drink alcohol?” 1 = 1–4, 2 = 5–6, 3 = 7–9, 4 = 10 or more).

read the full article here:– https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4879780/

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Living the dream in SW France Love Swimming, Rambling, Labrador's, Pilates, Photography, Astronomy, Reiki, Travelling and of course my wonderful family. I believe in truth, honesty, karma and integrity! KEEPING IT REAL - No one likes someone who lies and lives a different life on social media than they do in real life. ≧◔◡◔≦

4 thoughts on “Childhood traumatic experiences (CTEs)

  1. Reblogged this on Patricia McKnight ~~ My Justice and commented:
    Being a child of divorce can become quite stressful for our youth. If you’re a step-kid who is trying to work between two household families, or have gone from one parent custody to another; there could be a serious psychological affect, much similar to Childhood Traumatic Exeriences. Here is a great blog for kids affected by Custodial Interference of some type, and a recent Self Reported Study by National Institutes of Health (NIH)
    In October – National Domestic Violence Hotline #DomesticViolence can cause difficulty for all members of the household, regardless of age or gender. Be a friend, Use your past to help change this cycle for our kids. #EveryLifeMatters

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  2. Thanks so much for the information you share, absolutely there is so much connected in adult life, when ALIENATION or ABUSE, VIOLENCE have been a part of a child’s life. Keep up the great work 🙂 trish

    Like

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