The sense of loss and upset when the contact between parent and children is lost can be overwhelming. The depth of sadness may come as a surprise, and often is akin to mourning. The grief can be difficult to accept especially if you had been close to your children, and the guilt just as hard, if you were not close. How and why the contact was lost will also contribute to how you feel. Worried about your relationship with your teenage children? Chat to a trained counsellor free online.
The traits evaluated are as follows:
- Warmth, which is considered to indicate friendliness towards others and willingness to participate.
- Reasoning, which is thought to be indicative of cognitive ability and intellect;
- Emotional Stability, which refers to the candidate’s ability to adapt while under stress and whether they are easily upset.
- Dominance, which ascertains to levels of aggression, assertiveness and co-operation.
- Liveliness, which tends to indicate whether the candidate is likely to be cheerful or expressive as opposed to introverted or serious.
- Rule-Consciousness, which generally conveys attitudes towards authority and likelihood of obedience.
- Social Boldness, which refers to whether an individual is likely to be timid or shy as opposed to being uninhibited or out-going.
- Sensitivity, which considers whether the candidate is compassionate and sympathetic to others or if they tend to be more objective.
- Vigilance, which specifies how trusting, accepting or suspicious the individual may be around others.
- Abstractedness, which can refer to being imaginative or solution orientated but at the higher level can also suggest being impractical.
- Privateness, which can indicate how forthright or non-disclosing an individual might be.
- Apprehension, which is descriptive of whether someone may be more self-assured or insecure.
- Openness to Change, which is regarded as flexibility and a liberal attitude as opposed to being attached to the familiar.
- Self-Reliance, which identifies how self-sufficient or group orientated an individual might be.
- Perfectionism, which refers to self-discipline and precision as opposed to impulsiveness.
- Tension, which conveys the likelihood of being time driven or impatient instead of being relaxed and patient.
take the test here:- http://www.psychometrictest.org.uk/16pf-test/
Behavior genetics has demonstrated that genetic variance is an important component of variation for all behavioral outcomes, but variation among families is not. These results have led some critics of behavior genetics to conclude that heritability is so ubiquitous as to have few consequences for scientific understanding of development, while some behavior genetic partisans have concluded that family environment is not an important cause of developmental outcomes. Both views are incorrect. Genotype is in fact a more systematic source of variability than environment, but for reasons that are methodological rather than substantive. Development is fundamentally nonlinear, interactive, and difficult to control experimentally. Twin studies offer a useful methodological shortcut, but do not show that genes are more fundamental than environments.
Eric Turkheimer, Department of Psychology, 102 Gilmer Hall, P.O. Box 400400, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904–4400; e-mail: email@example.com
Genetic and environmental influences on personality trait stability and growth during the transition to adulthood
A three wave longitudinal study
Christopher J. Hopwood, M. Brent Donnellan, […], and S. Alexandra Burt
During the transition to adulthood individuals typically settle into adult roles in love and work. This transition also involves significant changes in personality traits that are generally in the direction of greater maturity and increased stability.
read the full article and compare the diagrams here:-http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3058678/?report=reader
Similarities between lower-order factors for psychoticism and the facets of openness, agreeableness, and conscientiousness (from Matthews, Deary & Whiteman, 2003)
Although both major trait models are descriptive, only the three-factor model offers a detailed causal explanation. Eysenck suggests that different personality traits are caused by the properties of the brain, which themselves are the result of genetic factors
- Honesty-Humility (H): sincere, honest, faithful, loyal, modest/unassuming versus sly, deceitful, greedy, pretentious, hypocritical, boastful, pompous
- Emotionality (E): emotional, oversensitive, sentimental, fearful, anxious, vulnerable versus brave, tough, independent, self-assured, stable
- Extraversion (X): outgoing, lively, extraverted, sociable, talkative, cheerful, active versus shy, passive, withdrawn, introverted, quiet, reserved
- Agreeableness (A): patient, tolerant, peaceful, mild, agreeable, lenient, gentle versus ill-tempered, quarrelsome, stubborn, choleric
- Conscientiousness (C): organized, disciplined, diligent, careful, thorough, precise versus sloppy, negligent, reckless, lazy, irresponsible, absent-minded
- Openness to Experience (O): intellectual, creative, unconventional, innovative, ironic versus shallow, unimaginative, conventional
Psychological manipulation is a type of social influence that aims to change the behavior or perception of others through abusive, deceptive, or underhanded tactics. By advancing the interests of the manipulator, often at another’s expense, such methods could be considered exploitative, abusive, devious, and deceptive. Social influence is not necessarily negative. For example, doctors can try to convince patients to change unhealthy habits. Manipulation involves a clever and ruthless manipulator bringing a simple victim under his or her domination (using deception and cunning) and using the victim to serve their own purposes. Manipulators are cold and ruthless in treating their victims and skilfull enough to know how to dominate and control the victim for a long time.
Poor parenting, inadequate parental supervision, discipline that is not consistent, and parental mental health status, stress or substance abuse all contribute to early-onset conduct problems; the resulting costs to society are high. Negative parenting practices and negative child behavior contribute to one another in a “coercive cycle”, in which one person begins by using a negative behavior to control the other person’s behavior. That person in turn responds with a negative behavior, and the negative exchange escalates until one person’s negative behavior “wins” the battle.:161 For example, if a child throws a temper tantrum to avoid doing a chore, the parent may respond by yelling that the child must do it, to which the child responds by tantruming even louder, at which point the parent may give in to the child to avoid further disruption. The child’s tantrums are thereby reinforced; by throwing a tantrum, s/he has achieved the end goal of getting out of the chore. PMT seeks to break patterns that reinforce negative behavior by instead teaching parents to reinforce positive behaviors.
The content of PMT, as well as the sequencing of skills within the training, varies according to the approach being used. In most PMT, parents are taught to define and record observations of their child’s behavior, both positive and negative. This monitoring procedure provides useful information for the parents and therapist to set specific goals for treatment, and to measure the child’s progress over time.:216:166 Parents learn to give specific, concise instructions using eye contact while speaking in a calm manner.:167
Mind control (also known as brainwashing, reeducation, brainsweeping, coercive persuasion, thought control, or thought reform) is a controversial pseudoscientific theory that human subjects can beindoctrinated in a way that causes “an impairment of autonomy, an inability to think independently, and a disruption of beliefs and affiliations. In this context, brainwashing refers to the involuntary reeducation of basic beliefs and values”.
Theories of brainwashing and of mind control were originally developed to explain how totalitarian regimes appeared to systematically indoctrinate prisoners of war through propaganda and torture techniques. These theories were later expanded and modified by psychologists including Margaret Singer and Philip Zimbardo to explain a wider range of phenomena, especially conversions to some new religious movements (NRMs). The suggestion that NRMs use mind control techniques has resulted in scientific and legal debate; with Eileen Barker, James Richardson, and other scholars, as well as legal experts, rejecting at least the popular understanding of the concept.
Moral development focuses on the emergence, change, and understanding of morality from infancy through adulthood. In the field of moral development, morality is defined as principles for how individuals ought to treat one another, with respect to justice, others’ welfare, and rights. In order to investigate how individuals understand morality, it is essential to measure their beliefs, emotions, attitudes, and behaviors that contribute to moral understanding. The field of moral development studies the role of peers and parents in facilitating moral development, the role of conscience and values, socialization and cultural influences, empathy and altruism, and positive development. The interest in morality spans many disciplines (e.g., philosophy, economics, biology, and political science) and specializations within psychology (e.g., social,cognitive, and cultural). Moral developmental psychology research focuses on questions of origins and change in morality across the lifespan.